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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Particulate Matter (PM): EPA's 2006 Revisions and Associated Issues

The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Particulate Matter (PM): EPA's 2006 Revisions and Associated Issues

Date: March 14, 2013
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report provides an analysis of the EPA's final 2006 revisions to the particulates National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and an overview of the estimated costs and benefits of the revised standards and of more stringent alternatives analyzed. The report highlights concerns and issues raised regarding the 2006 revisions to the particulates standards, including those of the science advisory committee (CASAC), and actions in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA's Upcoming Ozone Standard: How Much Will Compliance Cost?

EPA's Upcoming Ozone Standard: How Much Will Compliance Cost?

Date: October 15, 2014
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report briefly discusses upcoming changes in climate policy and cost associated with them. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is under a court order to complete a review of its ambient air quality standard for ozone (the "ozone NAAQS") by October 1, 2015. The agency must propose any change to the standard by December 1 of [2014].
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ozone Air Quality Standards: EPA's 2015 Revision

Ozone Air Quality Standards: EPA's 2015 Revision

Date: October 3, 2014
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report discusses the standard-setting process, the specifics of the current and most recent reviews, and issues that may be raised as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) brings the current review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone to completion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ozone Air Quality Standards: EPA's 2015 Revision

Ozone Air Quality Standards: EPA's 2015 Revision

Date: January 5, 2015
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report discusses the standard-setting process, the specifics of the current and most recent reviews, and issues that may be raised as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) brings the current review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone to completion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ozone Air Quality Standards: EPA's 2015 Revision

Ozone Air Quality Standards: EPA's 2015 Revision

Date: January 25, 2016
Creator: McCarthy, James E. & Lattanzio, Richard K.
Description: This report discusses the standard-setting process, the specifics of the most recent reviews, and issues raised by the final rulemaking for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone. The rule sets more stringent standards, lowering both the primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) standards from 75 parts per billion (ppb) to 70 ppb.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality Standards and Sound Science: What Role for CASAC?

Air Quality Standards and Sound Science: What Role for CASAC?

Date: September 18, 2007
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report discusses the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), which are standards that define what EPA considers to be clean air. Their importance stems from the long and complicated implementation process that is set in motion by their establishment.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Particulate Matter Air Quality Standards: Background and Current Developments

Particulate Matter Air Quality Standards: Background and Current Developments

Date: January 10, 2005
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: Following a brief summary of recent developments regarding the implementation and re-evaluation of the 1997 standards, this report provides a broad overview of the standard-setting process, followed by a description of revisions to earlier standards, legal challenges to the 1997 standard, and particulate matter health effects research. EPA’s ongoing progress in reviewing the 1997 standard is then summarized. Other activities that potentially impact the implementation and review of the particulate matter standards, such as other air quality regulations and proposed legislation, are also discussed in this report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Date: December 23, 2010
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: On April 2, 2007, the Supreme Court rendered one of its most important environmental decisions of all time. In Massachusetts v. EPA, the Court held that greenhouse gases (GHGs), widely viewed as contributing to climate change, constitute "air pollutants" as that phrase is used in the Clean Air Act (CAA). As a result, said the Court, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had improperly denied a petition seeking CAA regulation of GHGs from new motor vehicles by saying the agency lacked authority over such emissions. This report presents a chronology of major federal agency actions, mainly by EPA, in the wake of Massachusetts v. EPA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Pollution Control Laws: How Are They Enforced?

Federal Pollution Control Laws: How Are They Enforced?

Date: May 12, 2008
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report provides an overview of the statutory framework, key players, infrastructure, resources, tools, and operations associated with enforcement and compliance of the major pollution control laws and regulations administered by EPA. It also outlines the roles of federal (including regional offices) and state regulators, as well as the regulated community.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Pollution Control Laws: How Are They Enforced?

Federal Pollution Control Laws: How Are They Enforced?

Date: August 21, 2008
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report provides an overview of the statutory framework, key players, infrastructure, resources, tools, and operations associated with enforcement and compliance of the major pollution control laws and regulations administered by EPA. It also outlines the roles of federal (including regional offices) and state regulators, as well as the regulated community.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Date: February 2, 2011
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: This report presents a chronology of major federal agency actions, mainly by the Environmental Protection Agencey (EPA), in the wake of Massachusetts v. EPA. In this case, the Court held that greenhouse gases (GHGs), widely viewed as contributing to climate change, constitute “air pollutants” as that phrase is used in the Clean Air Act (CAA). As a result, said the Court, the U.S. EPA had improperly denied a petition seeking CAA regulation of GHGs from new motor vehicles by saying the agency lacked authority over such emissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Environment Facility (GEF): Overview

Global Environment Facility (GEF): Overview

Date: March 5, 2008
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: The report provides an overview regarding the establishment and the role of Global Environment Facility (GEF).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget Authority and Request, FY2010-FY2013

The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget Authority and Request, FY2010-FY2013

Date: March 15, 2012
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K.
Description: The United States supports international financial assistance for global climate change initiatives in developing countries. The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI) aims to integrate climate change considerations into U.S. foreign assistance through a full range of bilateral, multilateral, and private sector mechanisms to foster low-carbon growth, promote sustainable and climate-resilient societies, and reduce emissions from deforestation and land degradation. The GCCI is implemented through programs at three "core" agencies—the Department of State, the Department of the Treasury, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)—and is funded through the Administration's Executive Budget, Function 150 account, for State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs. As Congress considers potential authorizations and/or appropriations for activities administered through the GCCI, it may have questions concerning U.S. agency initiatives and current bilateral and multilateral programs that address global climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change and Existing Law: A Survey of Legal Issues Past, Present, and Future

Climate Change and Existing Law: A Survey of Legal Issues Past, Present, and Future

Date: October 25, 2012
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: Report that surveys existing law for legal issues that have arisen, or may arise in the future, on account of climate change and government responses thereto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Issues in the 112th Congress

Clean Air Issues in the 112th Congress

Date: September 4, 2012
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: Report providing a brief overview of the climate change, power plant, and air quality standard issues, as well as information on other Clean Air Act issues that the 112th Congress has addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Permitting: Status of Implementation and Issues

Clean Air Permitting: Status of Implementation and Issues

Date: March 20, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report describes the statutory background of the Title V program and the status of implementation, in terms of federal approval of state and local permitting authorities and permit issuance. It also discusses broad policy issues identified by various stakeholders, including program complexity and costs, and inconsistencies due to a lack of sufficient federal guidance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA's 2012 Proposed Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Air Quality: EPA's 2012 Proposed Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Date: September 5, 2012
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report summarizes the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) June 2012 proposed changes to the particulate matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and includes comparisons with previous (1997) and current (2006) promulgated and proposed standards. Key actions leading up to the June 2012 proposal, and potential issues and concerns associated with the proposal to strengthen the PM2.5 annual standard, are also highlighted.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Designating Nonattainment Areas

2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Designating Nonattainment Areas

Date: October 25, 2012
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report focuses primarily on the NAAQS implementation process for designating geographical nonattainment areas with respect to the tightening of the PM2.5 standards under the 2006 particulates NAAQS, including comparisons with the final designations under the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. Also included is a brief overview of states' subsequent obligations for developing and submitting implementation plans (SIPs) for attaining or maintaining compliance with the NAAQS.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Key Historical Court Decisions Shaping EPA’s Program Under the Clean Air Act

Key Historical Court Decisions Shaping EPA’s Program Under the Clean Air Act

Date: August 22, 2014
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: This report provides a selective overview of court decisions that historically have most shaped EPA’s program under the Clean Air Act (CAA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA's 2006 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Air Quality: EPA's 2006 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Date: April 17, 2008
Creator: Esworthy, Robert & McCarthy, James E.
Description: On October 17, 2006,3 the EPA published its revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulates to provide protection against potential health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (including chronic respiratory disease and premature mortality). In order to better understand EPA's actions, this report provides an analysis of the agency's final 2006 revisions to the particulates NAAQS, and the estimated costs and benefits of the new standards and of more stringent alternatives analyzed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality and Emissions Trading: A Primer

Air Quality and Emissions Trading: A Primer

Date: April 16, 2001
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: This report briefly discusses the extent to which emissions trading has been used in the United States, explains how trading programs work, analyzes factors that can influence the effectiveness of trading, and examines some of the principal arguments related to the use of trading to control air pollution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Permitting: Status of Implementation and Issues

Clean Air Permitting: Status of Implementation and Issues

Date: August 28, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report describes the statutory background of the Title V program and the status of implementation, in terms of federal approval of state and local permitting authorities and permit issuance. It also discusses broad policy issues identified by various stakeholders, including program complexity and costs, and inconsistencies due to a lack of sufficient federal guidance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA’s 2006 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Air Quality: EPA’s 2006 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Date: January 3, 2007
Creator: Esworthy, Robert & McCarthy, James E.
Description: In order to better understand EPA’s actions, this report provides an analysis of the agency’s final 2006 revisions to the particulates NAAQS, and the estimated costs and benefits of the new standards and of a more stringent alternatives analyzed. The report concludes by highlighting concerns and issues raised regarding the revisions to the particulates standards, including those of the science advisory committee (Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee, or CASAC), and actions in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Lessons Learned and Issues for Policy Makers

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Lessons Learned and Issues for Policy Makers

Date: November 14, 2014
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Description: The first section of this report provides an overview of the RGGI cap-and-trade program and the participating RGGI states. The subsequent sections discuss selected issues raised by RGGI that may be of interest to policy makers. The final section provides some final observations that may be instructive to policy makers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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