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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Date: January 10, 2001
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report addresses legal issues after the United States signed the Kyoto Protocol to the UnitedNations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The protocol is not yet in effect internationally and cannot be legally binding on the U.S. unless and until the Senate gives its advice and consent.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol

Date: January 15, 2003
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that was completed December 11, 1997, committing the industrialized nations to specified, legally binding reductions in emissions of six “greenhouse gases.”
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol

Date: October 27, 2004
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that was completed December 11, 1997, committing the industrialized nations to specified, legally binding reductions in emissions of six “greenhouse gases.”
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol

Date: December 17, 2001
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that was completed December 11, 1997, committing the industrialized nations to specified, legally binding reductions in emissions of six “greenhouse gases.”
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol

Date: September 8, 2003
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that was completed December 11, 1997, committing the industrialized nations to specified, legally binding reductions in emissions of six “greenhouse gases.”
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol

Date: June 10, 2004
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that was completed December 11, 1997, committing the industrialized nations to specified, legally binding reductions in emissions of six “greenhouse gases.”
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects

Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects

Date: February 10, 2006
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Description: This report identifies the array of climate-relevant human health research and discusses the interconnections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: January 19, 2007
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D. & Bamberger, Robert
Description: On April 6, 2006, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) released a final rulemaking for sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and light duty trucks beginning with model year (MY) 2008. The rule restructures the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program for light trucks to establish standards based upon vehicle size, as opposed to the current program with one average standard for all light trucks. It marks a significant change to the CAFE program for trucks.
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Clean Air Issues in the 110th Congress: Climate Change, Air Quality Standards, and Oversight

Clean Air Issues in the 110th Congress: Climate Change, Air Quality Standards, and Oversight

Date: October 19, 2007
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the climate change issue as well as other Clean Air Act issues the 110th Congress may consider.
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Clean Air Act Issues in the 110th Congress: Implementation and Oversight

Clean Air Act Issues in the 110th Congress: Implementation and Oversight

Date: January 3, 2007
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report provides a discussion of several interrelated air issues of interest in the 110th Congress, including revision of the particulate standards, the role of independent scientific review in the setting of air quality standards, multi-pollutant legislation for electric power plants, mercury from power plants, and New Source Review. This report provides an overview of these issues; CRS reports that contain additional information and detailed sources are referenced in the appropriate sections.
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Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: EPA's Air Compliance Agreement

Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: EPA's Air Compliance Agreement

Date: August 26, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses a plan announced by EPA in January 2005, called the Air Compliance Agreement, intended to produce air quality monitoring data on animal agriculture emissions from a small number of farms, while at the same time protecting all participants (including farms where no monitoring takes place) through a "safe harbor" from liability under certain provisions of federal environmental laws.
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Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Date: January 9, 2004
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report reviews several issues relating to alternative fuels and vehicles, mainly to combat dependence on petroleum imports and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discusses the advantages and drawbacks of various alternative fuels and vehicles, as well as related legislation.
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The Role of Offsets in a Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cap-and-Trade Program: Potential Benefits and Concerns

The Role of Offsets in a Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cap-and-Trade Program: Potential Benefits and Concerns

Date: June 2, 2008
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Description: This report discusses offsets in relation to a greenhouse gas emissions cap-and-trade program. The first section of this report provides an overview of offsets by discussing different types of offset projects and describing how the offsets would likely be used in an emission reduction program. The next section discusses the supply of offsets that might be available in an emission trading program. The subsequent sections examine the potential offset benefits and the potential concerns associated with offsets. The final section offers considerations for Congress.
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The Carbon Cycle: Implications for Climate Change and Congress

The Carbon Cycle: Implications for Climate Change and Congress

Date: March 13, 2008
Creator: Folger, Peter
Description: This report puts the human contribution of carbon to the atmosphere into the larger context of the global carbon cycle. The report focuses almost entirely on carbon dioxide (CO2), which alone is responsible for over half of the change in Earth's radiation balance. Moreover, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), CO2 is the most important greenhouse gas released to the atmosphere from human activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI): Research, Technology, and Related Programs

Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI): Research, Technology, and Related Programs

Date: January 22, 2001
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Description: The Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI) was the Clinton Administration's package of R&D (to develop renewable energy sources and more energy efficient technologies), targeted tax credits (to encourage purchase and deployment of more efficient technologies), and voluntary information programs (to help businesses and schools be better informed when making purchasing and operating decisions that involve energy use and emissions). This report describes the R&D, voluntary information programs, and funding aspects of the CCTI.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change: Federal Expenditures for Science and Technology

Climate Change: Federal Expenditures for Science and Technology

Date: July 18, 2005
Creator: Simpson, Michael M & Justus, John R
Description: This report identifies and discusses direct climate-focused scientific and research programs of the federal government, as well as an array of energy programs that relate indirectly to climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change: Federal Research, Technology, and Related Programs

Climate Change: Federal Research, Technology, and Related Programs

Date: October 3, 2001
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Description: A major focus of efforts to address possible global climate change has been on energy use, given that carbon dioxide, the major “greenhouse gas,” is added to the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. Federal programs to increase energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy resources have a history that goes back well over two decades. While many of these efforts were aimed at reducing U.S. dependence on oil imports and addressing electricity needs, they also are relevant to environmental concerns, including climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: August 4, 2006
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a continuing issue in the 109th Congress. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research to comprehensive emissions cap-and-trade programs. Additional bills focus on GHG reporting and registries, or on power plant emissions of carbon dioxide, as part of wider controls on pollutant emissions. The bills vary in their approaches to climate change issues. This report briefly discusses the basic concepts on which these bills are based and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, technology deployment, GHG reporting and registries, and emissions reduction programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: August 4, 2006
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a continuing issue in the 109th Congress. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research to comprehensive emissions cap-and-trade programs. Additional bills focus on GHG reporting and registries, or on power plant emissions of carbon dioxide, as part of wider controls on pollutant emissions. The bills vary in their approaches to climate change issues. This report briefly discusses the basic concepts on which these bills are based and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, technology deployment, GHG reporting and registries, and emissions reduction programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change: The Role of the U.S. Agriculture Sector and Congressional Action

Climate Change: The Role of the U.S. Agriculture Sector and Congressional Action

Date: June 19, 2009
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Description: The debate in Congress over whether and how to address possible future climate change is intensifying. Often, the role of the U.S. agriculture sector is invoked in this debate. Agriculture is a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which many scientists agree are contributing to observed climate change. Congress is considering a range of climate change policy options, including GHG emission reduction programs that would either mandate or authorize a cap-and-trade program to reduce GHG emissions. This report discusses this issue in detail, i.e., how the agricultural industry affects GHG emissions and efforts currently underway to combat these negative effects, but it does not address the potential effects of global climate change on U.S. agricultural production.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

Date: November 26, 2008
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John
Description: The 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change requires that signatories, including the United States, establish policies for constraining future emission levels of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2). The George H. W. Bush, Clinton, and George W. Bush Administrations each drafted action plans in response to requirements of the convention. These plans have raised significant controversy and debate. This report examines three starting points from which a U.S. response to the convention is being framed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections

Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections

Date: August 15, 2003
Creator: Blodgett, John E & Parker, Larry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)

Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)

Date: June 19, 2009
Creator: Folger, Peter
Description: Carbon capture and sequestration (or storage) - known as CCS - has attracted interest as a measure for mitigating global climate change because large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from fossil fuel use in the United States are potentially available to be captured and stored underground or prevented from reaching the atmosphere. Congressional interest has grown in CCS as part of legislative strategies to address climate change. The large and rapid influx of funding for industrial-scale CCS projects may accelerate development and deployment of CO2 capture technologies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Calculation of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Renewable Fuel Standard

Calculation of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Renewable Fuel Standard

Date: June 25, 2009
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D. & Bracmort, Kelsi S.
Description: The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) significantly expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS) established in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. EISA requires an increasing amount of the 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022 mandate be met with "advanced biofuels." This report defines the classification "biofuels," discusses the ongoing debate regarding several aspects of biofuels endeavors, and discusses related legislative efforts on climate change policy and low-carbon fuel standards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department