You limited your search to:

 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Clean Air After the CAIR Decision: Back to Square One?
This report discusses the potential impact on communities attempting to achieve National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and the impact on mercury emissions could be substantial, and has prompted some to call for congressional action to address the issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87351/
Biochar: Examination of an Emerging Concept to Mitigate Climate Change
This report briefly describes biochar, its potential advantages and disadvantages, legislative support, and research and development activities underway in the United States and abroad. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86544/
Climate Change Legislation in the 113th Congress
Report regarding legislative actions that explicitly address climate change issues. The provisions in these bills fall into six general categories: carbon price (i.e., tax or fee) on greenhouse (GHG) emissions; other mechanisms intended to encourage mitigation of GHG emissions (e.g., sequestration of emissions); research on climate change-related issues; adaptation activities related to expected climate change impacts; support for international climate change-related activities; and action that limits or prohibits climate change-related authorities, efforts, or considerations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227933/
Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress
Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been an issue in the 108th Congress, as they have been over the past decade. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research (H.R. 1578 and S. 1164) to comprehensive emissions cap and trading programs for all six greenhouse gases (S. 139 and H.R. 4067). This report briefly discusses basic concepts on which these bills are based, and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, GHG reporting and registries, and cap and trade programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10056/
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1392/
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1391/
Electricity Restructuring: The Implications for Air Quality
In the context of federal and state proposals to restructure the electric utility industry, this paper analyzes forces and policies affecting utility generation that may have consequences for emissions of air pollutants and of greenhouse gases. Key concerns are potential increases in nitrogen oxide emissions, raising questions about the effectiveness of the Clean Air Act to regulate a restructured industry, and in carbon dioxide emissions, which are not currently regulated but could be if the U.S. ratifies the Kyoto Agreement. These issues may be raised in the context of electricity restructuring legislation. For ongoing legislative activities, see CRS Issue Brief IB10006, Electricity: The Road Toward Restructuring. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1654/
Are Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rising More Rapidly Than Expected?
At least one recent report and numerous news articles suggest that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are rising more rapidly than expected. While CO2 emissions associated with human activities continue to rise -- and may be worthy of alarm because of their influence on climate change -- any short-term comparisons between actual emissions and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios miss the mark. This report analyzes this issue and the issues associated with IPCC scenarios and trajectories. It also describes the importance of monitoring CO2 emissions and analyzing the factors and forces behind increasing CO2 emissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10807/
Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1067/
The Clean Coal Technology Program: Current Prospects
The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program, started in the 1980's and funded generously in the early 1990's, has completed most of its surviving projects and has not funded any new ones since 1994. However, President Bush’s FY2002 budget outline proposed spending $2 billion over 10 years on a restructured CCT program. It is not clear what kind of projects would be included in the new program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1402/
Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls
This report discusses air quality initiatives (such as the Ozone Transport Rule) that primarily focus on reducing and enforcing emissions from coal-fired electric generating utilities in the Midwest and South. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1401/
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1400/
Global Climate Change: Congressional Concern About "Back Door" Implementation of the 1997 U.N. Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs844/
Global Climate Change: The Energy Tax Incentives in the President's FY2000 Budget
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs843/
Global Climate Change Policy: Domestic Early Action Credits
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs847/
Global Climate Change: A Concise History of Negotiations and Chronology of Major Activities Preceding the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs527/
Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: A Primer
This report focuses on the environmental quality of water resources as affected by animal agriculture, specifically animal waste, which can harm water quality through surface runoff, direct discharges, spills, and leaching into soil and groundwater. This report also discusses the contribution of emissions from animal feeding operations (AFO), enterprises where animals are raised in confinement, to air pollution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8641/
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs526/
Global Climate Change: Reducing Greenhouse Gases - How Much from What Baseline?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs525/
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5732/
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5733/
Global Climate Change: The Energy Tax Incentives in the President's FY1999 Budget
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs523/
Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs524/
Air Quality: Multi-Pollutant Legislation
One approach being proposed to more cost-effectively achieve national air quality goals is a "multi-pollutant" strategy -- a framework based on a consistent set of emissions caps, implemented through emissions trading. This report discusses this strategy and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2139/
A Clean Air Option: Cash for Clunkers
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 encourage states to pursue market-based approaches to improve air quality. An Accelerated Vehicle Retirement (AVR) program, commonly referred to as "Cash for Clunkers," is designed to provide an economic incentive for the owners of highly polluting vehicles to retire their automobiles permanently from use and to provide greater flexibility for private industry to reduce emissions by sponsoring such a program. The implementation of AVR programs can be controversial. This report discusses the AVR program debate and includes information on completed AVR pilot projects in selected states. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs287/
Global Climate Change: Adequacy of Commitments Under the U.N. Framework Convention and the Berlin Mandate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs286/
Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress
Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been an issue in the 108th Congress, as they have been over the past decade. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research (H.R. 1578 and S. 1164) to comprehensive emissions cap and trading programs for all six greenhouse gases (S. 139 and H.R. 4067). This report briefly discusses basic concepts on which these bills are based, and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, GHG reporting and registries, and cap and trade programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6136/
Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls
This report discusses air quality initiatives (such as the Ozone Transport Rule) that primarily focus on reducing and enforcing emissions from coal-fired electric generating utilities in the Midwest and South. The report also addresses various legislative activity that focuses on multi-pollutant strategies as an alternative to these piecemeal initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2142/
Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls
This report discusses air quality initiatives (such as the Ozone Transport Rule) that primarily focus on reducing and enforcing emissions from coal-fired electric generating utilities in the Midwest and South. The report also addresses various legislative activity that focuses on multi-pollutant strategies as an alternative to these piecemeal initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2141/
Air Quality: Multi-Pollutant Legislation
One approach being proposed to more cost-effectively achieve national air quality goals is a "multi-pollutant" strategy -- a framework based on a consistent set of emissions caps, implemented through emissions trading. This report discusses this strategy and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2140/
Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2128/
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2129/
Global Climate Change: Carbon Emissions and End-Use Energy Demand
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs846/
Climate Change: The European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS)
The European Union’s (EU’s) Emissions Trading System (ETS) is a cornerstone of the EU’s efforts to meet its obligation under the Kyoto Protocol. It covers more than 11,500 energy intensive facilities across the 25 EU member countries, including oil refineries, power plants over 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity, coke ovens, and iron and steel plants, along with cement, glass, lime, brick, ceramics, and pulp and paper installations. Covered entities emit about 45% of the EU’s carbon dioxide emissions. The trading program does not cover emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, which account for about 20% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. A final consideration for the ETS is its suitability for directing long-term investment toward a low-carbon future — the ultimate goal of any climate change program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9496/
Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9163/
Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3733/
Clean Air Act Permitting: Status of Implementation
The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments established an operating permit system that is affecting many new and existing sources of air emissions, as well as state and local air pollution control agencies. After delays and early missteps, the operating permit program is moving ahead. All state and local programs have received interim or full approval, and permits are being issued, although at a slower rate than anticipated. However, a number of issues exist. These include the effect of key federal regulations, not yet promulgated, on permit programs and regulated sources; adequacy of state resources; gaining full approval for those permit programs that now have interim approval; and oversight. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs964/
Automobile and Truck Fuel Economy (CAFE) and Greenhouse Gas Standards
Report that looks at vehicle fuel costs, fuel consumption in the United States, and examines the estimated costs to new vehicles that may arise from the Obama Administration's new passenger vehicle fuel economy and greenhouse gas standards for vehicle model years (MY) 2017-2025. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227810/
Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress
Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a continuing issue in the 109th Congress. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research to comprehensive emissions cap-and-trade programs. Additional bills focus on GHG reporting and registries, or on power plant emissions of carbon dioxide, as part of wider controls on pollutant emissions. The bills vary in their approaches to climate change issues. This report briefly discusses the basic concepts on which these bills are based and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, technology deployment, GHG reporting and registries, and emissions reduction programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7199/
Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: A Primer
This report focuses on the environmental quality of water resources as affected by animal agriculture, specifically animal waste, which can harm water quality through surface runoff, direct discharges, spills, and leaching into soil and groundwater. This report also discusses the contribution of emissions from animal feeding operations (AFO), enterprises where animals are raised in confinement, to air pollution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7792/
Climate Change: Comparison and Analysis of S. 1151 and the Draft "Climate and Economy Insurance Act of 2005"
Several proposals designed to address greenhouse gases have been introduced in the 109th Congress. Two proposals, S. 1151, introduced by Senators McCain and Lieberman, and a draft alternative, announced by Senator Bingaman, received increased scrutiny in preparation for the Senate’s debate on comprehensive energy legislation. During that debate, S. 1151, introduced as S.Amdt. 826, was defeated on a 38-60 vote. In contrast, the draft alternative remains a work-in-progress and has yet to be introduced. This report compares these two proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7793/
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7147/
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7146/
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3745/
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3746/
Nitrogen Oxides and Electric Utilities: Revising the NSPS
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs381/
Global Climate Change Treaty: Negotiations and Related Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs382/
Clean Air Issues in the 110th Congress: Climate Change, Air Quality Standards, and Oversight
This report provides a brief overview of the climate change issue as well as other Clean Air Act issues of interest in the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98085/
Climate Change: Comparison and Analysis of S. 1766 and S. 2191 (S. 3036)
This report focuses on the second category of bills, and on two bills in particular: S. 1766 and S. 2191. S. 1766. Introduced July 11, 2007, by Senators Bingaman and Specter, S. 1766 would set emissions targets on most of the country's greenhouse gas emissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94153/
Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Critical Barriers and Congressional Policy
Federal policymakers are debating a range of potential initiatives for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from U.S. energy sources. An overarching policy issue which arises from carbon control proposals is how the CO2 reduction targets could be achieved. One method that has garnered significant attention is increasing the electricity efficiency in buildings. Analysts have identified a number of critical socioeconomic and policy barriers which have historically limited the impact of federal and state building efficiency programs. This report describes those barriers, the degree to which federal law has addressed them, and their implications for meeting future U.S. carbon reduction targets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26171/