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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Date: February 2, 2011
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: This report presents a chronology of major federal agency actions, mainly by the Environmental Protection Agencey (EPA), in the wake of Massachusetts v. EPA. In this case, the Court held that greenhouse gases (GHGs), widely viewed as contributing to climate change, constitute “air pollutants” as that phrase is used in the Clean Air Act (CAA). As a result, said the Court, the U.S. EPA had improperly denied a petition seeking CAA regulation of GHGs from new motor vehicles by saying the agency lacked authority over such emissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Environment Facility (GEF): Overview

Global Environment Facility (GEF): Overview

Date: March 5, 2008
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: The report provides an overview regarding the establishment and the role of Global Environment Facility (GEF).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget Authority and Request, FY2010-FY2013

The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget Authority and Request, FY2010-FY2013

Date: March 15, 2012
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K.
Description: The United States supports international financial assistance for global climate change initiatives in developing countries. The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI) aims to integrate climate change considerations into U.S. foreign assistance through a full range of bilateral, multilateral, and private sector mechanisms to foster low-carbon growth, promote sustainable and climate-resilient societies, and reduce emissions from deforestation and land degradation. The GCCI is implemented through programs at three "core" agencies—the Department of State, the Department of the Treasury, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)—and is funded through the Administration's Executive Budget, Function 150 account, for State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs. As Congress considers potential authorizations and/or appropriations for activities administered through the GCCI, it may have questions concerning U.S. agency initiatives and current bilateral and multilateral programs that address global climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change and Existing Law: A Survey of Legal Issues Past, Present, and Future

Climate Change and Existing Law: A Survey of Legal Issues Past, Present, and Future

Date: October 25, 2012
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: Report that surveys existing law for legal issues that have arisen, or may arise in the future, on account of climate change and government responses thereto.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Issues in the 112th Congress

Clean Air Issues in the 112th Congress

Date: September 4, 2012
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: Report providing a brief overview of the climate change, power plant, and air quality standard issues, as well as information on other Clean Air Act issues that the 112th Congress has addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Permitting: Status of Implementation and Issues

Clean Air Permitting: Status of Implementation and Issues

Date: March 20, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report describes the statutory background of the Title V program and the status of implementation, in terms of federal approval of state and local permitting authorities and permit issuance. It also discusses broad policy issues identified by various stakeholders, including program complexity and costs, and inconsistencies due to a lack of sufficient federal guidance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA's 2012 Proposed Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Air Quality: EPA's 2012 Proposed Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Date: September 5, 2012
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report summarizes the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) June 2012 proposed changes to the particulate matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and includes comparisons with previous (1997) and current (2006) promulgated and proposed standards. Key actions leading up to the June 2012 proposal, and potential issues and concerns associated with the proposal to strengthen the PM2.5 annual standard, are also highlighted.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Designating Nonattainment Areas

2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Designating Nonattainment Areas

Date: October 25, 2012
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report focuses primarily on the NAAQS implementation process for designating geographical nonattainment areas with respect to the tightening of the PM2.5 standards under the 2006 particulates NAAQS, including comparisons with the final designations under the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. Also included is a brief overview of states' subsequent obligations for developing and submitting implementation plans (SIPs) for attaining or maintaining compliance with the NAAQS.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Key Historical Court Decisions Shaping EPA’s Program Under the Clean Air Act

Key Historical Court Decisions Shaping EPA’s Program Under the Clean Air Act

Date: August 22, 2014
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: This report provides a selective overview of court decisions that historically have most shaped EPA’s program under the Clean Air Act (CAA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Permitting: Status of Implementation and Issues

Clean Air Permitting: Status of Implementation and Issues

Date: August 28, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report describes the statutory background of the Title V program and the status of implementation, in terms of federal approval of state and local permitting authorities and permit issuance. It also discusses broad policy issues identified by various stakeholders, including program complexity and costs, and inconsistencies due to a lack of sufficient federal guidance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality and Emissions Trading: A Primer

Air Quality and Emissions Trading: A Primer

Date: April 16, 2001
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: This report briefly discusses the extent to which emissions trading has been used in the United States, explains how trading programs work, analyzes factors that can influence the effectiveness of trading, and examines some of the principal arguments related to the use of trading to control air pollution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA's 2006 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Air Quality: EPA's 2006 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Date: April 17, 2008
Creator: Esworthy, Robert & McCarthy, James E.
Description: On October 17, 2006,3 the EPA published its revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulates to provide protection against potential health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (including chronic respiratory disease and premature mortality). In order to better understand EPA's actions, this report provides an analysis of the agency's final 2006 revisions to the particulates NAAQS, and the estimated costs and benefits of the new standards and of more stringent alternatives analyzed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA’s 2006 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Air Quality: EPA’s 2006 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Date: January 3, 2007
Creator: Esworthy, Robert & McCarthy, James E.
Description: In order to better understand EPA’s actions, this report provides an analysis of the agency’s final 2006 revisions to the particulates NAAQS, and the estimated costs and benefits of the new standards and of a more stringent alternatives analyzed. The report concludes by highlighting concerns and issues raised regarding the revisions to the particulates standards, including those of the science advisory committee (Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee, or CASAC), and actions in Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Environment Facility (GEF): Overview

Global Environment Facility (GEF): Overview

Date: October 19, 2006
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: This report discusses the Global Environment Facility (GEF), serves as a primary source of funding for several major international environmental concerns. It was designed to provide incremental additional funding for development projects, in order to allow incorporation of environmental considerations in four specified areas: climate change, ozone depletion, biological diversity, and international waters. In recent years, land degradation and persistent organic pollutants have been added to its agenda. The GEF has provided funding to more than 1,300 projects in 140 nations. Although the United States has participated in the GEF since its inception, its level of contributions to the GEF has varied widely, from $30 million in 1994 to a high of $167 million in 1999, and to $80 million in 2006.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Lessons Learned and Issues for Policy Makers

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Lessons Learned and Issues for Policy Makers

Date: November 14, 2014
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Description: The first section of this report provides an overview of the RGGI cap-and-trade program and the participating RGGI states. The subsequent sections discuss selected issues raised by RGGI that may be of interest to policy makers. The final section provides some final observations that may be instructive to policy makers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cars, Trucks, and Climate: EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases from Mobile Sources

Cars, Trucks, and Climate: EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases from Mobile Sources

Date: March 13, 2014
Creator: McCarthy, James E. & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report discusses the full range of EPA's authority under Title II and provides information regarding other mobile sources that might be regulated under this authority, in addition to describing the car and truck regulations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA's 2013 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Air Quality: EPA's 2013 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Date: January 23, 2013
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report summarizes Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) January 15, 2013, final and June 2012 proposed changes to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and includes comparisons with previous (1997 and 2006) promulgated and proposed standards. Key actions leading up to the agency's determination, and potential issues and concerns associated with changing the Particulate Matter annual standard, are also highlighted.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA's 2013 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Air Quality: EPA's 2013 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Date: January 7, 2015
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report summarizes the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) January 15, 2013, final and June 2012 proposed changes to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and includes comparisons with previous (1997 and 2006) promulgated and proposed standards. Key actions leading up to the agency's determination, and potential issues and concerns associated with changing the Particulate Matter annual standard, are also highlighted.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cars, Trucks, and Climate: EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases from Mobile Sources

Cars, Trucks, and Climate: EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases from Mobile Sources

Date: November 2, 2010
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: As Congress and the Administration considered new legislation to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change over the last year and a half (a process that has now stalled), the Environmental Protection Agency simultaneously began to exercise its existing authority under the Clean Air Act to set standards for GHG emissions. The Administration has made clear that its preference would be for Congress to address the climate issue through new legislation. Nevertheless, it is moving forward on several fronts to define how the Clean Air Act will be used and to promulgate regulations. This report covers the steps that the Administration is taking on this topic.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Greenhouse Gas Reduction: Cap-and-Trade Bills in the 110th Congress

Greenhouse Gas Reduction: Cap-and-Trade Bills in the 110th Congress

Date: June 27, 2008
Creator: Parker, Larry; Yacobucci, Brent D. & Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Description: This report discusses the Cap-and-Trade Bills in the 110th Congress which are meant to advance market-based greenhouse gas reduction programs, similar to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The report presents a side-by-side comparison of the major provision in each of the bills and includes a glossary of common terms.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)

Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)

Date: June 10, 2008
Creator: Folger, Peter
Description: This report discusses carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), but not other types of carbon sequestration activities whereby CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored in vegetation, soils, or oceans.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Costs and Benefits of Clear Skies: EPA's Analysis of Multi-Pollutant Clean Air Bills

Costs and Benefits of Clear Skies: EPA's Analysis of Multi-Pollutant Clean Air Bills

Date: November 23, 2005
Creator: McCarthy, James E & Parker, Larry
Description: This report examines EPA's analysis and adjusts some of its assumptions to reflect current regulations. The most important adjustment is the choice of baseline. The agency’s analysis assumes as a baseline that, in the absence of new federal legislation, EPA and the states will take no additional action to control SO2, NOx, Hg, or CO2 emissions beyond those actions finalized by mid-2004. This baseline is put forth despite three rules recently promulgated by EPA that limit SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions on a timeframe similar to that proposed by the Clear Skies legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air and New Source Review: Defining Routine Maintenance

Clean Air and New Source Review: Defining Routine Maintenance

Date: January 14, 2004
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) final rule on clarifying the definition of routine maintenance under its New Source Review (NSR) process exempts industrial facilities from undergoing NSR if they are replacing safety, reliability, and efficiency rated components with new, functionally equivalent equipment and if the cost of the replacement components is under 20 percent of the replacement value of the process unit.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Highway Funding, the States, and New Air Quality Standards

Highway Funding, the States, and New Air Quality Standards

Date: June 10, 1998
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department