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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Acid Rain: Does it Contribute to Forest Decline?

Acid Rain: Does it Contribute to Forest Decline?

Date: January 24, 1985
Creator: Backiel, Adela
Description: This minibrief describes the major hypothesis explaining why acid rain may be contributing to forest decline, along with the major arguments against this hypothesis. For additional information on acid rain and current legislation for pollutant emissions controls, see IB83016 -- Acid Rain: Current Issues, and IB83005 -- Clean Air Act: An Overview.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: May 10, 1993
Creator: Justus, John R & Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: None
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Ethanol and Clean Air: The "Reg-Neg" Controversy and Subsequent Events

Ethanol and Clean Air: The "Reg-Neg" Controversy and Subsequent Events

Date: June 22, 1993
Creator: Segal, Migdon
Description: The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), enacted in 1990, called for cleaner automotive fuels in order to upgrade air quality. This appeared to provide new market potential for ethanol, which is obtained from corn grown in the midwestern United States, and which is already in large-scale use in a blend of ten percent ethanol to ninety percent gasoline. The CAAA left specific details of the clean fuels program to be worked out by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in consultation with the interested parties.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: Impacts of Trip Reduction Programs on States and Affected Employers

Air Quality: Impacts of Trip Reduction Programs on States and Affected Employers

Date: August 18, 1993
Creator: Flechtner, Maura K & Mayer, Susan L
Description: This report discusses employer trip reduction (ETR) programs, which would require large employers to implement certain transportation control measures as part of a national effort to combat air pollution, largely as a direct result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
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Market-Based Environmental Management: Issues in Implementation

Market-Based Environmental Management: Issues in Implementation

Date: March 7, 1994
Creator: Moore, John L.; Blodgett, John E.; Copeland, Claudia; Gushee, David E.; Mayer, Susan L.; McCarthy, James E. et al.
Description: Increasingly, efforts to protect integral features of the natural environment that are essential to human well being face a double challenge. First, the magnitude of some conventional and emerging threats to environmental quality is growing, despite solid progress in controlling some causes. This is particularly the concern on a global scale in terms of atmospheric changes and loss of biological diversity. Second, easily-implemented uniform control methods using feasible technologies or other direct regulatory approaches are already in place for many pollution and resource management problems in the United States. Additional progress with so-called command and control policies can be expensive and disruptive, and thus counter productive to overall economic well being. This type of dilemma is common where environmental deterioration results from diffuse and complex causes inherent in technically-advanced high-consumption industrial societies such as the U.S. Solutions to these types of environmental problems are complicated by the diffuse benefits which obscures the net gains of additional controls that have concentrated and highly visible costs. Given this double bind, many policy analysts and academics have for years advocated more cost-effective and flexible approaches relying on market forces to further some environmental management objectives. Although market-based theory and practical environmental policy are ...
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Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Date: November 15, 1994
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: This report discusses the broad-ranging provisions in Title IV of The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549), which raise myriad implementation issues, particularly with respect to the system of tradable "allowances."
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Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Date: April 5, 1995
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: This report discusses the broad-ranging provisions in Title IV of The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549), which raise myriad implementation issues, particularly with respect to the system of tradable "allowances."
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California Air Quality FIP - A Fact Sheet

California Air Quality FIP - A Fact Sheet

Date: April 13, 1995
Creator: Mayer, Susan L
Description: On April 10, 1995, President Clinton signed P.L. 104-6, which contained a provision that rescinds the Federal air quality implementation plan (FIP) for the South Coast, Ventura, and Sacramento areas of California.(1) As a result, the FIP issued by EPA has no further force and effect, and California will continue pursuing approval of its own State implementation plan (SIP) in lieu of the FIP. Promulgation of the FIP was perceived by some within the State as having a detrimental effect on California's industries and economy resulting from costly and burdensome air pollution control measures contained in the plan.
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Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate: Marine Mammal Issues

Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate: Marine Mammal Issues

Date: May 12, 1995
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Description: After global warming became a concern in the mid-1950s, researchers proposed measuring deep ocean temperatures to reveal any significant trends in core ocean warming. Acoustic thermometry can detect changes in ocean temperature by receiving low-frequency sounds transmitted across an ocean basin because the speed of sound is proportional to water temperature. Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate, or ATOC, is an international program involving 11 institutions in seven nations. It is designed as a 30-month "proof-of-concept" project to provide data on possible global climate change, with funding provided by the U.S. Department of Defense. A debate has arisen over ATOC's impact on marine mammals versus the benefits of better global warming information derived from ATOC. This report dicusses the ATOC program and related concerns.
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A Clean Air Option: Cash for Clunkers

A Clean Air Option: Cash for Clunkers

Date: September 16, 1996
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 encourage states to pursue market-based approaches to improve air quality. An Accelerated Vehicle Retirement (AVR) program, commonly referred to as "Cash for Clunkers," is designed to provide an economic incentive for the owners of highly polluting vehicles to retire their automobiles permanently from use and to provide greater flexibility for private industry to reduce emissions by sponsoring such a program. The implementation of AVR programs can be controversial. This report discusses the AVR program debate and includes information on completed AVR pilot projects in selected states.
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Global Climate Change: Adequacy of Commitments Under the U.N. Framework Convention and the Berlin Mandate

Global Climate Change: Adequacy of Commitments Under the U.N. Framework Convention and the Berlin Mandate

Date: October 25, 1996
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: This report discusses the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) convened July 8-19, 1996, in Geneva, Switzerland.
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Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: Regulatory Issues

Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: Regulatory Issues

Date: November 4, 1996
Creator: Gushee, David E & Parker, Larry
Description: None
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Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: December 4, 1996
Creator: Justus, John R & Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: This report discusses the effect of human activities on global climate change. Human activities, particularly burning of fossil fuels, have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other trace gases, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, and nitrous oxide.
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Air Quality: EPA's Proposed New Ozone and Particulate Matter Standards

Air Quality: EPA's Proposed New Ozone and Particulate Matter Standards

Date: June 27, 1997
Creator: Blodgett, John E; Parker, Larry & McCarthy, James E
Description: This report discusses the contentious issue of enforcing stringent national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM), the opponents of which decry as harmful to the economy. The report discusses actions undertaken by the EPA, President Clinton's support of the NAAQSs, and the criticisms of opponents.
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Nitrogen Oxides and Electric Utilities: Revising the NSPS

Nitrogen Oxides and Electric Utilities: Revising the NSPS

Date: July 25, 1997
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: None
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Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: Methyl Bromide Control Measures

Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: Methyl Bromide Control Measures

Date: October 16, 1997
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: None
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Highway Fund Sanctions for Clean Air Act Violations

Highway Fund Sanctions for Clean Air Act Violations

Date: October 22, 1997
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: None
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Global Climate Change: The Role of U.S. Foreign Assistance

Global Climate Change: The Role of U.S. Foreign Assistance

Date: November 21, 1997
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: This report discusses the role of U.S. foreign assistance to reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases that most experts believe cause global warming
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Global Climate Change Treaty: Negotiations and Related Issues

Global Climate Change Treaty: Negotiations and Related Issues

Date: November 21, 1997
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses the negotiations leading the Kyoto conference of the parties. The United States and other parties to the 1992 Climate Change Convention signed at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro will meet December 1-12 in Kyoto, Japan, to conclude year-long negotiations on a legally binding protocol or amendment to reduce or stabilize emissions of greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. proposal to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases to 1990 levels between 2008-2012 is less ambitious than environmentalists and many other treaty Parties urge, but represents a commitment that others, including many in business, fear could damage the economy. A key aspect of the negotiations also is what should be expected of developing nations, whose current emissions of greenhouse gases are relatively small, but are expected to increase rapidly over the next decade with economic development. A sense of the Senate resolution calls for all countries to meet scheduled reductions, and would agree to U.S. participation only if harm to the domestic economy is avoided. If agreement is reached in Kyoto, Senate approval would be required for U.S. ratification, and legislation to implement commitments would also likely be necessary.
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Global Climate Change: The Energy Tax Incentives in the President's FY1999 Budget

Global Climate Change: The Energy Tax Incentives in the President's FY1999 Budget

Date: March 4, 1998
Creator: Lazzari, Salvatore
Description: None
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Global Climate Change: Reducing Greenhouse Gases - How Much from What Baseline?

Global Climate Change: Reducing Greenhouse Gases - How Much from What Baseline?

Date: March 11, 1998
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: This report discusses the ways to reduce emissions of six greenhouses gases after the Kyoto meeting on Global Climate Change. Projecting the reductions that would be required if the U.S. were to ratify the treaty is difficult. While emissions of CO are fairly well established and account for 2 about 85% of total carbon equivalent emissions, emissions of the other gases, especially N O, are more uncertain.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Date: April 10, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report discusses the Kyoto Protocol and whether the United States is now legally bound by the Protocol, the legal implications of signing it, whether it could be implemented as an executive agreement without submission to the Senate, and whether the Protocol could be used as the legal basis for regulation of emissions even prior to ratification.
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Global Climate Change: A Concise History of Negotiations and Chronology of Major Activities Preceding the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention

Global Climate Change: A Concise History of Negotiations and Chronology of Major Activities Preceding the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention

Date: May 5, 1998
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: This report discusses the ongoing international policy debate regarding Global Climate Change and U.S. involvement in the issue of global climate change.The report provides an historical context of the current debate, which is important in understanding the fundamental issues about global climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA's Proposed Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Air Quality: EPA's Proposed Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Date: May 14, 1998
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently engaged in a series of regulatory actions to address the transport of ozone pollution in the eastern United States. This report reviews this situation with respect to an EPA-proposed Ozone Transport Rule and other activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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