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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Are Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rising More Rapidly Than Expected?

Are Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rising More Rapidly Than Expected?

Date: October 17, 2008
Creator: Leggett, Jane A. & Logan, Jeffrey
Description: At least one recent report and numerous news articles suggest that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are rising more rapidly than expected. While CO2 emissions associated with human activities continue to rise -- and may be worthy of alarm because of their influence on climate change -- any short-term comparisons between actual emissions and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios miss the mark. This report analyzes this issue and the issues associated with IPCC scenarios and trajectories. It also describes the importance of monitoring CO2 emissions and analyzing the factors and forces behind increasing CO2 emissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Measuring and Monitoring Carbon in the Agricultural and Forestry Sectors

Measuring and Monitoring Carbon in the Agricultural and Forestry Sectors

Date: October 6, 2008
Creator: Gorte, Ross W. & Johnson, Renée
Description: Proposals to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases often include the use of forestry and agricultural practices and lands for carbon sequestration. However, uncertainty about the accuracy of measuring carbon from these activities has led some to question this potential. Basic approaches for measuring forest and agricultural carbon include on-site measurement; indirect measurement from off-site tools; and estimation using models or inferences. Because of challenges associated with balancing the cost and accuracy of these measurement tools, any practicable system for measuring forest and agricultural carbon might require a mix of these approaches.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Status of Negotiations

Global Climate Change: Status of Negotiations

Date: June 17, 2008
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: In December 2007, the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held their 13th annual meeting in Bali, Indonesia, and began the process of working toward an agreement/treaty that would succeed the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC when it expires in 2012. The Protocol includes a mandate for a reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 30 developed/industrialized nations to an average of some 5% below their 1990 levels over the commitment period 2008-2012. The broad array of these issues, briefly discussed in this report, has been described by some as comprising perhaps the most complex negotiations ever undertaken internationally.
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Global Climate Change and Wildlife

Global Climate Change and Wildlife

Date: May 15, 2008
Creator: Sheikh, Pervaze A.; Corn, M. Lynne; Leggett, Jane A. & Folger, Peter
Description: Recently projected climate changes could have widespread effects on wildlife species. These effects might be positive or negative, depending on the species. Some effects might include extinction, range shifts, mismatches in phenology (timing of pollination, flowering, etc.), and population changes. If the effects of climate change are widespread, there is uncertainty on how wildlife will adapt. Some suggest that evolution and migration will enable species to adapt, whereas others contend that adaptation will be minimal because of limited habitat, and changes in climate that may occur may rapidly than adaptation can respond.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense

Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: Whether broader expansions from federal environmental laws are needed to preserve military readiness has been an issue. Questions have been raised as to whether environmental requirements have limited military training activities to the point that readiness would be compromised. The potential impacts of broader exemptions on environmental quality have raised additional questions. Although certain exemptions the Department of Defense (DOD) first requested in FY2003 have been enacted into law, Congress has opposed others. From FY2003 to FY2008, DOD requested exemptions from the Clean Air Act, Solid Waste Disposal Act, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. To date, Congress has not enacted these three latter exceptions. The Administration's FY2009 defense authorization bill does not include these exemptions.
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Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: August 4, 2006
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a continuing issue in the 109th Congress. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research to comprehensive emissions cap-and-trade programs. Additional bills focus on GHG reporting and registries, or on power plant emissions of carbon dioxide, as part of wider controls on pollutant emissions. The bills vary in their approaches to climate change issues. This report briefly discusses the basic concepts on which these bills are based and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, technology deployment, GHG reporting and registries, and emissions reduction programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Market-Based Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

Global Climate Change: Market-Based Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

Date: October 1, 2002
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: This report discusses global climate change and the possibility that human activities are releasing gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), at rates that could affect global climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: February 22, 2006
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a continuing issue in the 109th Congress. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research to comprehensive emissions cap-and-trade programs. Additional bills focus on GHG reporting and registries, or on power plant emissions of carbon dioxide, as part of wider controls on pollutant emissions. The bills vary in their approaches to climate change issues. This report briefly discusses the basic concepts on which these bills are based and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, technology deployment, GHG reporting and registries, and emissions reduction programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress

Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress

Date: June 9, 2004
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D & Powers, Kyna
Description: Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been an issue in the 108th Congress, as they have been over the past decade. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research (H.R. 1578 and S. 1164) to comprehensive emissions cap and trading programs for all six greenhouse gases (S. 139 and H.R. 4067). This report briefly discusses basic concepts on which these bills are based, and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, GHG reporting and registries, and cap and trade programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections

Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections

Date: August 15, 2003
Creator: Blodgett, John E & Parker, Larry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans, and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards

Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans, and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards

Date: February 28, 2003
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: August 4, 2006
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a continuing issue in the 109th Congress. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research to comprehensive emissions cap-and-trade programs. Additional bills focus on GHG reporting and registries, or on power plant emissions of carbon dioxide, as part of wider controls on pollutant emissions. The bills vary in their approaches to climate change issues. This report briefly discusses the basic concepts on which these bills are based and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, technology deployment, GHG reporting and registries, and emissions reduction programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change: The European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS)

Climate Change: The European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS)

Date: July 31, 2006
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: The European Union’s (EU’s) Emissions Trading System (ETS) is a cornerstone of the EU’s efforts to meet its obligation under the Kyoto Protocol. It covers more than 11,500 energy intensive facilities across the 25 EU member countries, including oil refineries, power plants over 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity, coke ovens, and iron and steel plants, along with cement, glass, lime, brick, ceramics, and pulp and paper installations. Covered entities emit about 45% of the EU’s carbon dioxide emissions. The trading program does not cover emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, which account for about 20% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. A final consideration for the ETS is its suitability for directing long-term investment toward a low-carbon future — the ultimate goal of any climate change program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mercury Emissions from Electric Power Plants: States are Setting Stricter Limits

Mercury Emissions from Electric Power Plants: States are Setting Stricter Limits

Date: July 11, 2006
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: August 4, 2006
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a continuing issue in the 109th Congress. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research to comprehensive emissions cap-and-trade programs. Additional bills focus on GHG reporting and registries, or on power plant emissions of carbon dioxide, as part of wider controls on pollutant emissions. The bills vary in their approaches to climate change issues. This report briefly discusses the basic concepts on which these bills are based and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, technology deployment, GHG reporting and registries, and emissions reduction programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects

Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects

Date: February 10, 2006
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Description: This report identifies the array of climate-relevant human health research and discusses the interconnections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Acid Rain: Does it Contribute to Forest Decline?

Acid Rain: Does it Contribute to Forest Decline?

Date: January 24, 1985
Creator: Backiel, Adela
Description: This minibrief describes the major hypothesis explaining why acid rain may be contributing to forest decline, along with the major arguments against this hypothesis. For additional information on acid rain and current legislation for pollutant emissions controls, see IB83016 -- Acid Rain: Current Issues, and IB83005 -- Clean Air Act: An Overview.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: March 21, 2006
Creator: Justus, John R & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report briefly reviews the status of climate science, international negotiations, and congressional activity focused specifically on climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: A Primer

Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: A Primer

Date: February 2, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report focuses on the environmental quality of water resources as affected by animal agriculture, specifically animal waste, which can harm water quality through surface runoff, direct discharges, spills, and leaching into soil and groundwater. This report also discusses the contribution of emissions from animal feeding operations (AFO), enterprises where animals are raised in confinement, to air pollution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: EPA's Air Compliance Agreement

Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: EPA's Air Compliance Agreement

Date: February 2, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: In an effort to collect scientifically credible data regarding the effect of animal agriculture on water resources (specifically animal waste and emissions from animal feeding operations (AFO), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in January 2005 announced the Air Compliance Agreement. The agreement is intended to produce air quality monitoring data on AFO emissions during a two-year study, while at the same time protecting participants through a “safe harbor” from liability under certain provisions of federal environmental laws.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Legal Analysis and Background on the EPA's Proposed Rules for Regulating Mercury Emissions from Electric Utilities

Legal Analysis and Background on the EPA's Proposed Rules for Regulating Mercury Emissions from Electric Utilities

Date: May 10, 2004
Creator: Garcia, Michael John
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air and New Source Review: Defining Routine Maintenance

Clean Air and New Source Review: Defining Routine Maintenance

Date: January 14, 2004
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) final rule on clarifying the definition of routine maintenance under its New Source Review (NSR) process exempts industrial facilities from undergoing NSR if they are replacing safety, reliability, and efficiency rated components with new, functionally equivalent equipment and if the cost of the replacement components is under 20 percent of the replacement value of the process unit.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Costs and Benefits of Clear Skies: EPA's Analysis of Multi-Pollutant Clean Air Bills

Costs and Benefits of Clear Skies: EPA's Analysis of Multi-Pollutant Clean Air Bills

Date: November 23, 2005
Creator: McCarthy, James E & Parker, Larry
Description: This report examines EPA's analysis and adjusts some of its assumptions to reflect current regulations. The most important adjustment is the choice of baseline. The agency’s analysis assumes as a baseline that, in the absence of new federal legislation, EPA and the states will take no additional action to control SO2, NOx, Hg, or CO2 emissions beyond those actions finalized by mid-2004. This baseline is put forth despite three rules recently promulgated by EPA that limit SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions on a timeframe similar to that proposed by the Clear Skies legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: May 10, 1993
Creator: Justus, John R & Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department