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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Climate Change and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS): Looking to 2020

Climate Change and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS): Looking to 2020

Date: January 26, 2010
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: This report discusses the European Union's (EU) Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cornerstone of the EU's efforts to meet its obligation under the Kyoto Protocol. It covers more than 10,000 energy intensive facilities across the 27 EU Member countries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Aviation and Climate Change

Aviation and Climate Change

Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report provides background on aviation emissions and the factors affecting them; it discusses the tools available to control emissions, including existing authority under the Clean Air Act and proposed economy-wide cap-and-trade legislation; and it examines international regulatory developments that may affect U.S. commercial airlines.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ozone Air Quality Standards: EPA's Proposed January 2010 Revisions

Ozone Air Quality Standards: EPA's Proposed January 2010 Revisions

Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report discusses the standard-setting process for ambient air, the specifics of the new standard, and issues raised by the Administrator's choice; and it describes the steps that will follow EPA's promulgation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change: EU and Proposed U.S. Approaches to Carbon Leakage and WTO Implications

Climate Change: EU and Proposed U.S. Approaches to Carbon Leakage and WTO Implications

Date: April 12, 2010
Creator: Parker, Larry & Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report discusses climate change and issues related to carbon leakage by examining the European Union's (EU's) cap-and-trade program with a review and analysis of various EU efforts to address the concerns of energy-intensive, trade-exposed industries. Additionally, it considers similar provisions enacted or proposed by the U.S.and analyzes potential World Trade Organization (WTO) implications in relation to U.S. trade agreements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biochar: Examination of an Emerging Concept to Mitigate Climate Change

Biochar: Examination of an Emerging Concept to Mitigate Climate Change

Date: May 24, 2010
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi S.
Description: Biochar is a charcoal produced under high temperatures using crop residues, animal manure, or any type of organic waste material. Depending on the feedstock, biochar may look similar to potting soil or to a charred substance. The combined production and use of biochar is considered a carbon-negative process, meaning that it removes carbon from the atmosphere. This report briefly describes biochar, its potential advantages and disadvantages, legislative support, and research and development activities underway in the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ocean Acidification

Ocean Acidification

Date: May 27, 2010
Creator: Buck, Eugene H. & Folger, Peter
Description: This report discusses the increasing concern, within the scientific community, that rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could detrimentally alter marine ecosystems. The report discusses how ocean acidification happens, its possible outcomes, as well as natural and human responses that could possibly limit or reduce the rate of the process.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy

Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy

Date: August 16, 2010
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi; Lattanzio, Richard K. & Barbour, Emily C.
Description: This report is intended as a primer on the policy issues, science, and governance of geoengineering technologies. The report will first set the policy parameters under which geoengineering technologies may be considered. It will then describe selected technologies in detail and discuss their status. The third section provides a discussion of possible approaches to governmental involvement in, and oversight of, geoengineering, including a summary of domestic and international instruments and institutions that may affect geoengineering projects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Issues in the 111th Congress

Clean Air Issues in the 111th Congress

Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report provides a brief overview on the issue of climate change as well as other Clean Air Act issues of interest to the 111th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS): Looking to 2020

Climate Change and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS): Looking to 2020

Date: September 10, 2010
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: This report discusses emissions standards in trade in European Union (EU).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: October 8, 2010
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities in the Arctic, and has heightened concerns about the region's future. Issues such as Arctic sovereignty claims; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation, competition, or conflict. This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cars, Trucks, and Climate: EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases from Mobile Sources

Cars, Trucks, and Climate: EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases from Mobile Sources

Date: November 2, 2010
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: As Congress and the Administration considered new legislation to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change over the last year and a half (a process that has now stalled), the Environmental Protection Agency simultaneously began to exercise its existing authority under the Clean Air Act to set standards for GHG emissions. The Administration has made clear that its preference would be for Congress to address the climate issue through new legislation. Nevertheless, it is moving forward on several fronts to define how the Clean Air Act will be used and to promulgate regulations. This report covers the steps that the Administration is taking on this topic.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Climate Change: A Negotiations Side-by-Side

International Climate Change: A Negotiations Side-by-Side

Date: November 18, 2010
Creator: Leggett, Jane A.
Description: This report discusses various cooperative international efforts to address the issue of global climate change. The two major international agreements discussed in a side-by-side comparison are the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and the 2010 Copenhagen Accord. The report discusses how many observers are hoping that initiatives carried out under the Copenhagen Accord may help bridge divides between the various tracks and economic groupings established under the Kyoto Protocol.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Litigation Seeking to Establish Climate Change Impacts as a Common Law Nuisance

Litigation Seeking to Establish Climate Change Impacts as a Common Law Nuisance

Date: November 19, 2010
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: This report discusses recent legislative initiatives seeking to establish climate change impacts as a common law nuisance. The report explains what private and public nuisances are, the issues faced by policymakers when litigating a climate-change/nuisance suit, and also discusses five climate-chance/nuisance suits that are now or formerly active, as a basis of comparison. The report also explores arguments of those both for and against addressing the complex issue of climate change through common law suits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Date: December 3, 2010
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: This report presents a chronology of major federal agency actions taken in the wake of Massachusetts v. EPA. In Massachusetts v. EPA, the Court held that greenhouse gases (GHGs), widely viewed as contributing to climate change, constitute "air pollutants" as that phrase is used in the Clean Air Act (CAA). As a result, said the Court, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had improperly denied a petition seeking CAA regulation of GHGs from new motor vehicles by saying the agency lacked authority over such emissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Date: December 23, 2010
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: On April 2, 2007, the Supreme Court rendered one of its most important environmental decisions of all time. In Massachusetts v. EPA, the Court held that greenhouse gases (GHGs), widely viewed as contributing to climate change, constitute "air pollutants" as that phrase is used in the Clean Air Act (CAA). As a result, said the Court, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had improperly denied a petition seeking CAA regulation of GHGs from new motor vehicles by saying the agency lacked authority over such emissions. This report presents a chronology of major federal agency actions, mainly by EPA, in the wake of Massachusetts v. EPA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Methane Capture: Options for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction

Methane Capture: Options for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction

Date: January 7, 2011
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi; Ramseur, Jonathan L.; McCarthy, James E.; Folger, Peter & Marples, Donald J.
Description: This report discusses alternatives for addressing methane capture, sources of methane, opportunities and challenges for methane capture, and current federal programs that support methane recovery.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy

Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy

Date: January 10, 2011
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi; Lattanzio, Richard K. & Barbour, Emily C.
Description: This report is intended as a primer on the policy issues, science, and governance of geoengineering technologies. The report will first set the policy parameters under which geoengineering technologies may be considered. It will then describe selected technologies in detail and discuss their status. The third section provides a discussion of possible approaches to governmental involvement in, and oversight of, geoengineering, including a summary of domestic and international instruments and institutions that may affect geoengineering projects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?

Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?

Date: January 25, 2011
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi
Description: This report assesses the variables involved in determining whether or not biopower (i.e., electricity generated from biomass) is a carbon-neutral alternative to fossil fuels as a way to help meet meet U.S. energy demands and reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It includes information about the biomass carbon cycle, GHG accounting for biopower production, recent developments affecting the assessment, and overview of whether or not it can be considered carbon neutral, and legislative implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS): Looking to 2020

Climate Change and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS): Looking to 2020

Date: January 27, 2011
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: This report looks at new European Union (EU) emissions standards in trade.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Date: February 2, 2011
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: This report presents a chronology of major federal agency actions, mainly by the Environmental Protection Agencey (EPA), in the wake of Massachusetts v. EPA. In this case, the Court held that greenhouse gases (GHGs), widely viewed as contributing to climate change, constitute “air pollutants” as that phrase is used in the Clean Air Act (CAA). As a result, said the Court, the U.S. EPA had improperly denied a petition seeking CAA regulation of GHGs from new motor vehicles by saying the agency lacked authority over such emissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court’s Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court’s Climate Change Decision: A Chronology

Date: April 6, 2011
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: This report presents a chronology of major federal agency actions related to environmental concerns following the decision of Massachusetts v. EPA; it particularly looks at actions of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In Massachusetts v. EPA, the Supreme Court held that greenhouse gases (GHGs), widely viewed as contributing to climate change, constitute “air pollutants” as that phrase is used in the Clean Air Act (CAA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Climate Change Financing: Needs, Sources, and Delivery Methods

International Climate Change Financing: Needs, Sources, and Delivery Methods

Date: May 5, 2011
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K. & Leggett, Jane A.
Description: This report discusses the domestic and international efforts to increase foreign assistance to address climate change. Proponents maintain that such assistance could help promote low-emissions and high-growth economic development in lower-income countries, while simultaneously protecting the more vulnerable countries from the effects of a changing climate. The fundamental dispute concerning international financing for climate change centers upon who should pay for it and how.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Litigation Seeking to Establish Climate Change Impacts as a Common Law Nuisance

Litigation Seeking to Establish Climate Change Impacts as a Common Law Nuisance

Date: May 9, 2011
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: There are five common law/nuisance suits addressing climate change now or formerly active. Of the three no longer active, none were successful. Of the two still-active cases, one has recently leaped to center stage because the Supreme Court agreed to hear it. In Connecticut v. American Electric Power Co., Inc., eight states sued five utility companies alleged to be emitting the most GHGs in the nation through their coal-fired electric power plants. Following a Second Circuit decision, the Supreme Court agreed on December 6, 2010, to resolve threshold issues in this case.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?

Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?

Date: July 6, 2011
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi
Description: This report assesses the variables involved in determining whether or not biopower (i.e., electricity generated from biomass) is a carbon-neutral alternative to fossil fuels as a way to help meet meet U.S. energy demands and reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It includes information about the biomass carbon cycle, GHG accounting for biopower production, recent developments affecting the assessment, and overview of whether or not it can be considered carbon neutral, and legislative implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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