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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Federal Farm Promotion ("Check-off") Programs

Federal Farm Promotion ("Check-off") Programs

Date: May 3, 1996
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses legislation establishing national generic promotion ("check-off') programs for 20 specified farm commodities. Thirteen of the 20 authorized programs are now in effect.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Farm Promotion ("Check-Off") Programs

Federal Farm Promotion ("Check-Off") Programs

Date: May 24, 2005
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses the so-called beef check-off program, one of a number of generic promotion programs for beef and other agricultural products that Congress has authorized in recent decades. Supporters view check-offs as economically beneficial self-help activities that need minimal government involvement or taxpayer funding. Producers, handlers, and/or importers are required to pay an assessment, usually deducted from revenue at time of sale — thus the name check-off. However, some farmers contend they are being “taxed” for advertising and related activities they would not underwrite voluntarily.
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U.S. Agricultural Trade with Cuba: Current Limitations and Future Prospects

U.S. Agricultural Trade with Cuba: Current Limitations and Future Prospects

Date: July 23, 2015
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Description: This report reviews the current state of agricultural trade between the United States and Cuba. It identifies key impediments to expanding bilateral trade in agricultural products and key provisions in the law to which these obstacles are anchored, and also considers the potential consequences for trade in agricultural goods if bilateral trade were returned to a more normal footing. It also summarizes several of the bills introduced in the 114th Congress that propose to remove specific restrictions that impede trade in agricultural goods or that seek to lift the embargo on Cuba entirely.
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U.S. Agricultural Trade with Cuba: Current Limitations and Future Prospects

U.S. Agricultural Trade with Cuba: Current Limitations and Future Prospects

Date: October 1, 2015
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Description: This report reviews the current state of agricultural trade between the United States and Cuba, identifies key impediments to expanding bilateral trade in agricultural products and key provisions in the law to which these obstacles are anchored. It also summarizes several of the bills introduced in the 114th Congress that propose to remove specific restrictions that impede trade in agricultural goods or that seek to lift the embargo on Cuba entirely.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs

Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs

Date: January 23, 2006
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2006, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform.
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U.S.-Canada Wheat Trade Dispute

U.S.-Canada Wheat Trade Dispute

Date: April 19, 2006
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report provides background for understanding the U.S. and Canadian wheat trade dispute, as well as timelines, rulings, and other details for the International Trade Commission (ITC) and World Trade Organization (WTO) cases brought by the United States against Canadian wheat trading practices and the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB).
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U.S. Agricultural Trade with Cuba: Current Limitations and Future Prospects

U.S. Agricultural Trade with Cuba: Current Limitations and Future Prospects

Date: October 1, 2015
Creator: McMinimy, Mark A.
Description: This report reviews the current state of agricultural trade between the United States and Cuba, identifies key impediments to expanding bilateral trade in agricultural products and key provisions in the law to which these obstacles are anchored. It also summarizes several of the bills introduced in the 114th Congress that propose to remove specific restrictions that impede trade in agricultural goods or that seek to lift the embargo on Cuba entirely.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
What Is the Farm Bill?

What Is the Farm Bill?

Date: July 23, 2014
Creator: Johnson, Renée & Monke, Jim
Description: This report describes the Farm Bill (P.L. 110-246, Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, which was enacted into law on June 18, 2008.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2009

Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2009

Date: January 20, 2010
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.
Description: This report provides a table which lists supplemental appropriations for Agriculture. From FY1989 through FY2009, 39 appropriations, authorization, or farm disaster acts added approximately $68.7 billion in supplemental funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs (excluding the Forest Service, which is funded annually under the Interior appropriations bill). Approximately $50.2 billion, or just under three-fourths of the total amount, was provided within the last 10 years.
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Bee Health: The Role of Pesticides

Bee Health: The Role of Pesticides

Date: February 17, 2015
Creator: Johnson, Renée & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This report briefly describes recent scientific research and analysis regarding the potential role of pesticides among the factors affecting the health and well-being of bees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, 1988-June 1999

Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, 1988-June 1999

Date: July 19, 1999
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Between 1988 and June 1999, thirteen emergency supplemental or farm disaster acts provided a total of $17 billion in emergency funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The vast majority of this amount has gone directly to farmers, primarily in the form of disaster payments ($12.2 billion) to any farmer suffering a significant crop loss caused by a natural disaster, and "market loss" payments ($3.1 billion) to help grain, cotton, and dairy farmers recover from low farm commodity prices. The remaining $1.7 billion has gone to a wide array of other USDA programs, including those for other forms of farm disaster assistance, farm loans, and overseas food aid. Congress is expected to consider a multi-billion financial assistance package for farmers sometime this year.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, FY1989-FY2001

Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, FY1989-FY2001

Date: December 11, 2000
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: From FY1989 through FY2001 (to date), nineteen appropriations or farm disaster acts have provided $38 billion in emergency funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. Nearly $27 billion, or about 70 percent of the total amount, has been provided for FY1999-FY2001 alone. Since FY1989, the vast majority of the funds has been paid directly to farmers, primarily in the form of “market loss payments” (just under $17 billion, all since FY1999) to compensate for low farm commodity prices, and disaster payments($15.6 billion) paid to any producer who experienced a major crop loss caused by a natural disaster. The remaining $5.4 billion has funded a wide array of other USDA programs, including other forms of farm disaster assistance, farm loans, overseas food aid, food and nutrition programs, and rural development assistance.
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The U.S. Farm Economy

The U.S. Farm Economy

Date: February 16, 2005
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: None
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Previewing a 2007 Farm Bill

Previewing a 2007 Farm Bill

Date: August 18, 2005
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Description: None
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Organic Agriculture in the United States: Program and Policy Issues

Organic Agriculture in the United States: Program and Policy Issues

Date: November 3, 2005
Creator: Rawson, Jean M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Dairy Policy Issues

Dairy Policy Issues

Date: January 7, 2005
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Several dairy issues that were debated during the 108th Congress are expected to continue as issues of interest in the 109th Congress. Separate bills were introduced in the 108th Congress to extend authority for both the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) Program and the dairy forward pricing pilot program, and to address dairy producer concerns about the importation of milk protein concentrates.
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Dairy Policy Issues

Dairy Policy Issues

Date: May 26, 2005
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Several dairy issues that were debated during the 108th Congress are expected to continue as issues of interest in the 109th Congress. Separate bills were introduced in the 108th Congress to extend authority for both the Milk Income Loss Contract (MILC) Program and the dairy forward pricing pilot program, and to address dairy producer concerns about the importation of milk protein concentrates.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Dairy Policy Issues

Dairy Policy Issues

Date: July 21, 2004
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: A temporary pilot program that allows processors to enter into forward price contracts with individual dairy farmers or their cooperatives for certain uses of milk is scheduled to expire December 31, 2004. A forward price contract allows buyers and sellers of a commodity to negotiate a price for the commodity on a future delivery date and insulates both parties from price volatility. Identical bills (H.R. 3308, S. 2565) pending in Congress would convert the pilot program to a permanent one. The bills are supported by dairy processors, but are opposed by the largest organization of dairy cooperatives, which is concerned that the program might undermine federal minimum pricing requirements
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Dairy Policy Issues

Dairy Policy Issues

Date: April 2, 2001
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Three major dairy policy issues captured the attention of the 106th Congress, and are expected to remain issues of concern to the 107th Congress-- federal financial assistance for dairy farmers; implementation by USDA of changes to federal farm milk pricing regulations; and regional debates over the market effects of dairy compacts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Dairy Policy Issues

Dairy Policy Issues

Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Many dairy farmer groups are concerned that imports of milk protein concentrates (MPCs) are displacing domestic dairy ingredients and thus depressing farm milk prices. S.560 and H.R. 1160 would impose tariff rate quotas on certain MPCs, and S. 40 would prohibit the use of dry MPC in domestic cheese production. Dairy processor groups are opposed to these bills. A dairy producer group challenged the Customs Service classification of MPCs, but Customs ruled that current classifications are correct.
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Conservation Compliance for Agriculture: Status and Policy Issues

Conservation Compliance for Agriculture: Status and Policy Issues

Date: April 10, 1998
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: This program, known as "conservation compliance," was amended in 1990 and 1996. This paper reviews the compliance concept, the program requirements, and the implementation record. It also introduces three policy topics: the effect of compliance on erosion rates and patterns; the effectiveness and flexibility of implementation; and the possible impact of changes to commodity policies enacted in the 1996 farm bill.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues

Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues

Date: May 8, 2001
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985, enables producers to retire highly erodible or environmentally sensitive cropland, usually for 10 years. Congress reauthorized and amended the CRP in the 1996 Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act (P.L. 104-127; 16 U.S.C. 3811, et seq.). The law caps enrollment at 36.4 million acres and makes funding mandatory through the commodity Credit Corporation.
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Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues

Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues

Date: February 4, 2005
Creator: Johnson, Barbara
Description: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985, provides payments to farmers to take highly erodible or environmentally sensitive cropland out of production for ten years or more to conserve soil and water resources. It is the federal government’s largest private land retirement program. The program is administered by the Farm Service Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), with technical assistance provided by USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues

Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues

Date: May 23, 2000
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985, enables producers to retire highly erodible or environmentally sensitive cropland, usually for 10 years. Congress reauthorized and amended the CRP in the 1996 Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act (P.L. 104-127; 16 U.S.C. 3811, et seq.). The law caps enrollment at 36.4 million acres and makes funding mandatory through the commodity Credit Corporation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department