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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress

Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 108th Congress

Date: October 8, 2004
Creator: Buck, Eugene H
Description: This report discusses policy and legislation regarding fish and marine mammals. These animals are important resources in open ocean and nearshore coastal areas. Commercial and sport fishing are jointly managed by the federal government and individual states. Many laws and regulations guide the management of these resources by federal agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Commodity Programs: Honey

Farm Commodity Programs: Honey

Date: December 3, 2004
Creator: Canada, Carol
Description: This report discusses the honey price support program, which was first created by the Agricultural Act of 1949 (P.L. 81-439) to provide market price stability for honey producers and to encourage maintenance of sufficient bee populations for pollination
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Farm Commodity Programs: Base Acreage and Planting Flexibility

Farm Commodity Programs: Base Acreage and Planting Flexibility

Date: September 14, 2005
Creator: Monke, Jim
Description: This report discusses two policy issues that have arisen regarding planting flexibility on base acres, particularly restrictions on growing fruits and vegetables as an alternative crop. First, some Midwestern producers felt penalized because their history of growing fruits and vegetables reduced their soybean bases under the 2002 farm bill. H.R. 2045 and S. 1038 would allow certain fruits and vegetables to be grown without penalizing any future recalculation of base, while reducing a farm’s subsidy payments for one year. S. 194 would allow chicory to be grown on base acres. Second, a World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement panel found that the restriction on planting fruits and vegetables made direct and counter-cyclical payments ineligible to be a nondistorting payment (green box) for international trade purposes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Commodity Programs: Direct Payments, Counter-Cyclical Payments, and Marketing Loans

Farm Commodity Programs: Direct Payments, Counter-Cyclical Payments, and Marketing Loans

Date: February 10, 2006
Creator: Monke, Jim
Description: Commodity support provisions in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-171, the 2002 farm bill) include three primary types of payments: (1) annual direct payments unrelated to production or prices, (2) counter-cyclical payments which are triggered when prices are below statutorily-determined target prices, and (3) marketing assistance loans that offer interim financing and, if prices fall below statutorily-determined loan prices, additional income support. This report describes the payments for wheat, feed grains, cotton, rice, oilseeds, peanuts, wool, mohair, honey, and certain other small grains. These commodities have similar rules, and generally account for about two-thirds of USDA farm commodity program outlays.
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The Farm Bill: Soil and Water Conservation Issues

The Farm Bill: Soil and Water Conservation Issues

Date: December 29, 1995
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: This report discusses resource conservation topics, which are a part of the farm bill debate. Debate on existing programs focuses on reauthorization of the Conservation Reserve Program and possible amendments to the reserve, swampbuster, and conservation compliance.
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Farm Commodity Programs: A Short Primer

Farm Commodity Programs: A Short Primer

Date: September 14, 2001
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report briefly discusses programs designed to provide income support, price support, and/or supply management for approximately 20 specified agricultural commodities. USDA farm support programs represent the heart of U.S. farm policy, by virtue of their longevity – they have existed since the early 1930s – and their cost.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Commodity Legislation: Chronology, 1933-98

Farm Commodity Legislation: Chronology, 1933-98

Date: February 9, 1999
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: Farm commodity programs were a product of the Great Depression. This report discusses the history of farm commodity legislation. Since 1933, Congress has required the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) to administer a variety of programs providing price support and income protection for the nations farmers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Commodity Programs: A Short Primer

Farm Commodity Programs: A Short Primer

Date: June 20, 2002
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report briefly discusses programs designed to provide income support, price support, and/or supply management for approximately 20 specified agricultural commodities. USDA farm support programs represent the heart of U.S. farm policy, by virtue of their longevity – they have existed since the early 1930s – and their cost.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt

Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt

Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses new regulations on livestock grazing on lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management became effective August 21, 1995. Many aspects of the new regulations were challenged in Public Lands Council v. Babbitt. A federal district court upheld many of the regulations, but struck down four of them and enjoined their implementation. At the appellate level, only the new regulation allowing conservation use to the exclusion of livestock grazing for the full term of a permit was held invalid. The Supreme Court has agreed to hear the case and argument has been set for March 1, 2000.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Previewing the Next Farm Bill

Previewing the Next Farm Bill

Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.
Description: Congress periodically establishes agricultural and food policy in an omnibus farm bill. The 112th Congress faces reauthorization of the current five-year farm bill because many of its provisions expire in 2012. The 2008 farm bill contained 15 titles covering farm commodity support, horticulture, livestock, conservation, nutrition assistance, international food aid, trade, agricultural research, farm credit, rural development, bioenergy, and forestry, among others. Leaders of the House and Senate Agriculture Committees anticipate having a new farm bill completed before the end of this session. If the current farm bill expires without a new authorization or a temporary extension, it automatically would be replaced with permanent statutes for farm commodity support, which are not fully compatible with current national economic objectives, global trading rules, and federal budgetary or regulatory policies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
WTO Doha Round: Agricultural Negotiating Proposals

WTO Doha Round: Agricultural Negotiating Proposals

Date: November 9, 2005
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E & Schnepf, Randy
Description: The pace of negotiations in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations has quickened as the mid-December Hong Kong Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) approaches. At Hong Kong, WTO member countries are expected to reach agreements on specific measures (known as modalities) to expand global trade in agricultural and industrial products and services and set the stage for intensive negotiations that would take place during 2006. Despite intense negotiations, agreements on modalities, especially for agriculture, have eluded negotiators. This report provides background information on the WTO, the Doha Round, the key negotiating groups, and a schedule of historical and upcoming events relevant to the agricultural negotiations; reviews the agreements reached in the July 2004 framework and identifies issues that remain to be resolved by the Hong Kong Ministerial in December; discusses and compares the major agricultural negotiating proposals; and discusses the potential effects of an agricultural agreement on U.S. farm policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
WTO Doha Round: The Agricultural Negotiations

WTO Doha Round: The Agricultural Negotiations

Date: January 12, 2006
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E & Schnepf, Randy
Description: The pace of negotiations in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations quickened in October 2005 as the December Hong Kong Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) approached. At Hong Kong, however, while WTO members agreed on a broad outline of negotiating objectives for further liberalizing global trade in agriculture, industry and services, they made only limited progress in determining precise numerical formulas (known as modalities) for meeting the Round’s aims. WTO members agreed to intensify efforts to reach agreement on modalities and conclude Doha Round negotiations by the end of 2006. This report assesses the current status of agricultural negotiations in the Doha Round; traces the developments leading up to the Hong Kong Ministerial; examines the major agricultural negotiating proposals; discusses the potential effects of a successful Doha Round agreement on global trade, income, U.S. farm policy, and U.S. agriculture; and provides background on the WTO, the Doha Round, the key negotiating groups, and a schedule of historical and upcoming events relevant to the agricultural negotiations.
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Wheat, Feed Grains, Cotton, Rice, and Oilseeds Provisions of the Enacted 1996 Farm Bill

Wheat, Feed Grains, Cotton, Rice, and Oilseeds Provisions of the Enacted 1996 Farm Bill

Date: May 20, 1996
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Agriculture After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Status and Issues

U.S. Agriculture After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Status and Issues

Date: October 5, 2005
Creator: Schnepf, Randy & Chite, Ralph M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Summary and Comparison of the Major Agricultural Provisions of the Tobacco Settlement Policy Proposals

Summary and Comparison of the Major Agricultural Provisions of the Tobacco Settlement Policy Proposals

Date: July 6, 1998
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Value-Added Agricultural Enterprises in Rural Development Strategies

Value-Added Agricultural Enterprises in Rural Development Strategies

Date: October 8, 2002
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Agricultural Policy Response to WTO Cotton Decision

U.S. Agricultural Policy Response to WTO Cotton Decision

Date: September 8, 2006
Creator: Randy Schnepf
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Navy Biofuel Initiative Under the Defense Production Act

The Navy Biofuel Initiative Under the Defense Production Act

Date: June 22, 2012
Creator: Andrews, Anthony; Bracmort, Kelsi; Brown, Jared T. & Else, Daniel H.
Description: This report looks at the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to “assist the development and support of a sustainable commercial biofuels industry" which was entered into by the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Navy. It raises issues and concerns for Congress to consider when deciding how to fund MOU.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Peanut Program: Evolution from Supply Management to Market Orientation

Peanut Program: Evolution from Supply Management to Market Orientation

Date: August 8, 2002
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers

Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 "Swine Flu": Questions and Answers

Date: June 24, 2009
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Description: This report discusses how the outbreak of the strain of influenza A (H1N1), commonly referred to as "swine flu," affected the domestic and international pork markets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress

Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Buck, Eugene H
Description: Fish and marine mammals are important resources in open ocean and nearshore coastal areas; many federal laws and regulations guide their management. This report discusses a variety of laws and legislation pertaining to this issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
An Introduction to Farm Commodity Programs

An Introduction to Farm Commodity Programs

Date: July 20, 1994
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is required to provide assistance to 20 specified agricultural commodities, to achieve three primary objectives: to support prices, supplement incomes, and manage supplies. Supporters contend that financial help to the farm sector also ensures consumers an abundant supply of reasonably priced food. But critics believe that basic U.S. farm policies, conceived in the 1930s, no longer meet the needs of modern agriculture or society as a whole. This report discusses the various programs available for different commodities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Implementing International Agreements on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): Proposed Amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act

Implementing International Agreements on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): Proposed Amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act

Date: March 28, 2006
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: The focus of this report is on proposed amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). This report does not constitute a legal analysis of the bills or of existing law. Instead, it begins by describing the three international agreements and relevant provisions of TSCA. The report then summarizes selected provisions of H.R. 4591 and H.R. 4800, as introduced, and compares them in a brief narrative and more detailed table.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Implementing the Conservation Security Program

Implementing the Conservation Security Program

Date: November 23, 2004
Creator: Johnson, Barbara
Description: This report discusses the Conservation Security Program (CSP), which is a agricultural conservation program created in the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171, §2001). It provides incentives for farmers to pursue conservation and helps pay for conservation practices. Unlike some other NRCS programs, it pays for conservation on land that remains in production and makes eligible a wide range of farm lands (cropland, pastureland, rangeland, grassland, prairie land, tribal lands, and forested lands incidental to an agricultural operation)
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department