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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agriculture in the WTO Doha Round: The Framework Agreement and Next Steps
Member countries of the World Trade Organization (WTO) reached agreement on July 31, 2004 on a framework for negotiating agricultural trade liberalization in the multilateral trade round known as the Doha Development Agenda (DDA). The framework, part of a work program for all negotiating issues in the DDA (nonagricultural market access, services, trade facilitation, etc.), sets the stage for negotiations, now underway, to determine specific targets or formulas (“modalities”) for curbing trade-distorting domestic support, reducing trade barriers and eliminating export subsidies. If agreed to, the agriculture modalities report would be on the agenda of the WTO’s Sixth Ministerial Conference in December 2005, and negotiations could be completed during 2006. In the meantime, the President has requested a two-year extension of trade promotion authority procedures (TPA, also known as fast-track) for considering legislation to implement trade agreements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9099/
Agriculture in the WTO: Policy Commitments Made Under the Agreement on Agriculture
This report provides a review of the major agricultural policy commitments made by members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) during the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations completed in 1994, and the legal text that underlies those commitments. Most agricultural support commitments are embodied in the Agreement on Agriculture and it is the essential focus of this review. However, references are made to additional supporting legal texts that emerged as part of the Uruguay Round Agreement, as well as to related studies and references produced by the WTO, its member countries, and international organizations interested in trade and development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9100/
Agriculture in WTO Negotiations
The World Trade Organization’s (WTO) fifth ministerial conference (held September 10-14, 2003 in Cancun, Mexico) ended without an agreement on a framework for continuing multilateral negotiations on agricultural trade liberalization. The inconclusive end of the Cancun ministerial places in doubt the ability of WTO member countries to complete the current round of negotiations by the scheduled January 1, 2005 deadline. This report discusses the various agricultural negotiations currently underway in the WTO. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9076/
Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness
The potential of terrorist attacks against agricultural targets (agroterrorism) is increasingly recognized as a national security threat, especially after the events of September 11, 2001. Agroterrorism is a subset of bioterrorism, and is defined as the deliberate introduction of an animal or plant disease with the goal of generating fear, causing economic losses, and/or undermining social stability. This report outlines the probable strategic reasoning behind agroterrorism, the vulnerabilities of the agriculture industry, and the funding and legislation behind several preventive Congressional measures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10413/
Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness
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Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness
Although U.S. intelligence agencies have not identified any terrorist acts targeting agricultural production (i.e., agroterrorism) in the United States to date, the events of September 11, 2001 have awakened the nation to their possibility. Some experts estimate that a single agroterrorist attack using a highly contagious livestock disease could cost between $10 billion and $30 billion to the U.S. economy. This report addresses the use of biological weapons against agriculture, rather than the threat of terrorists using agricultural inputs for other purposes. It also focuses more on agricultural production than food processing and distribution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5731/
Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness
The potential of terrorist attacks against agricultural targets (agroterrorism) is increasingly recognized as a national security threat, especially after the events of September 11, 2001. In this context, agroterrorism is defined as the deliberate introduction of an animal or plant disease with the goal of generating fear, causing economic losses, and/or undermining stability. This report addresses the use of biological weapons against agriculture, rather than the threat of terrorists using agricultural inputs for other purposes. It also focuses more on agricultural production than food processing and distribution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6486/
The 2013 Farm Bill: A Comparison of the Senate-Passed Bill (S. 954) and House- Reported Bill (H.R. 1947) with Current Law
Report that provides a side-by-side comparison of every provision in the House Agriculture Committee-reported and Senate-passed farm bills with each other and with current law or policy, as amended and extended by the fiscal cliff bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227860/
Sustainable Agriculture
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U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
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U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
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U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
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U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
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Why U.S. Agricultural Exports Have Declined in the 1980s
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U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
Leading markets for U.S. agricultural exports are Canada, Mexico, Japan, China, the European Union (EU), Taiwan, and Korea. The United States dominates world markets for corn, wheat, and cotton. Most U.S. agricultural imports are high-value products. The biggest import suppliers are Canada and the EU. Among the fastest-growing markets for U.S. agricultural exports are Canada and Mexico. Both the EU and the U.S. subsidize their agricultural sectors, but overall the EU out subsidizes the U.S. The U.S. has the most diverse food aid programs; others limit food aid to development assistance and emergencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10522/
U.S. Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy
Leading markets for U.S. agricultural exports are Canada, Mexico, Japan, China, the European Union (EU), Taiwan, and Korea. The United States dominates world markets for corn, wheat, and cotton. Most U.S. agricultural imports are high-value products. The biggest import suppliers are Canada and the EU. Among the fastest-growing markets for U.S. agricultural exports are Canada and Mexico. Both the EU and the U.S. subsidize their agricultural sectors, but overall the EU out subsidizes the U.S. The U.S. has the most diverse food aid programs; others limit food aid to development assistance and emergencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10521/
What Is the “Farm Bill”?
This report discusses the farm bill, which renewed about every five years, governs federal farm and food policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822093/
Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2013 Appropriations
This report discusses the Agriculture appropriations bill—formally known as the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, which provides funding for the following agencies: the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822397/
Iraq Agriculture and Food Supply: Background and Issues
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Agricultural Trade in the Free Trade Area of the Americas
Leaders of Western Hemisphere countries have agreed to negotiate a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement by 2005. FTAA’s objective is to promote economic growth and democracy by eliminating barriers to trade in all goods (including agricultural and food products) and services, and to facilitate investment. If diplomats reach agreement, free trade in the hemisphere could occur by 2020. Negotiations on FTAA’s agriculture component have become contentious. This report discusses the controversial aspects of FTAA, describes the advantages and disadvantages of FTAA, and discusses FTAA in relation to the existing North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8849/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2003, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3725/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2003, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3727/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2003, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3728/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2003, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3729/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2003, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3726/
Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea
This report discusses pending U.S. free trade agreements (FTAs) with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama. The bills to implement these agreements will now be debated under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration. The report includes an overview of agricultural issues regarding FTAs and pending FTA partners, as well as a closer breakdown of the specific issues for each of the countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103059/
Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea
The 111th Congress in coming months might take up free trade agreements (FTAs) signed by the Bush Administration with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration of these agreements. Accordingly, agriculture as covered in each pending trade agreement is examined in this report in the order that Congress likely will take up these agreements, based upon statements made to date by Obama Administration officials and Members of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26158/
Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama
This report discusses pending U.S. free trade agreements (FTAs) with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama. The bills to implement these agreements will now be debated under trade promotion authority, or fast-track rules, designed to expedite congressional consideration. The report includes an overview of agricultural issues regarding FTAs and pending FTA partners, as well as a closer breakdown of the specific issues for each of the countries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93818/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2003, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2114/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2003, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2113/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2002, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2111/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2004, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3730/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2002, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2112/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2005, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10117/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2005, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10116/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2004, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10066/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2001, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1375/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2004, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10067/
Farm Bill Trade and Food Aid Provisions
This report discusses the trade provisions of omnibus farm legislation, passed and signed into law in May 2002. The measure includes a trade title reauthorizing, through 2007, the major foreign food aid and agricultural export programs. It also contains other provisions affecting agricultural trade, including new country-of-origin labeling requirements for meat, seafood, and produce; and increased domestic farm subsidies with possible implications for U.S. trade relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8721/
Farm Bill Trade and Food Aid Provisions
This report discusses the trade provisions of omnibus farm legislation, passed in May 2002. The measure includes a trade title reauthorizing, through 2007, the major foreign food aid and agricultural export programs. It also contains other provisions affecting agricultural trade, including new country-of-origin labeling requirements for meat, seafood, and produce; and increased domestic farm subsidies with possible implications for U.S. trade relations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2125/
Federal Farm Promotion ("Check-off") Programs
This report discusses legislation establishing national generic promotion ("check-off') programs for 20 specified farm commodities. Thirteen of the 20 authorized programs are now in effect. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs277/
Federal Farm Promotion ("Check-Off") Programs
This report discusses the so-called beef check-off program, one of a number of generic promotion programs for beef and other agricultural products that Congress has authorized in recent decades. Supporters view check-offs as economically beneficial self-help activities that need minimal government involvement or taxpayer funding. Producers, handlers, and/or importers are required to pay an assessment, usually deducted from revenue at time of sale — thus the name check-off. However, some farmers contend they are being “taxed” for advertising and related activities they would not underwrite voluntarily. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8533/
U.S. Agricultural Trade with Cuba: Current Limitations and Future Prospects
This report reviews the current state of agricultural trade between the United States and Cuba. It identifies key impediments to expanding bilateral trade in agricultural products and key provisions in the law to which these obstacles are anchored, and also considers the potential consequences for trade in agricultural goods if bilateral trade were returned to a more normal footing. It also summarizes several of the bills introduced in the 114th Congress that propose to remove specific restrictions that impede trade in agricultural goods or that seek to lift the embargo on Cuba entirely. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743399/
U.S. Agricultural Trade with Cuba: Current Limitations and Future Prospects
This report reviews the current state of agricultural trade between the United States and Cuba, identifies key impediments to expanding bilateral trade in agricultural products and key provisions in the law to which these obstacles are anchored. It also summarizes several of the bills introduced in the 114th Congress that propose to remove specific restrictions that impede trade in agricultural goods or that seek to lift the embargo on Cuba entirely. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795368/
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs
This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2006, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824803/
What Is the Farm Bill?
This report describes the Farm Bill (P.L. 110-246, Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, which was enacted into law on June 18, 2008. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463323/
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2009
This report provides a table which lists supplemental appropriations for Agriculture. From FY1989 through FY2009, 39 appropriations, authorization, or farm disaster acts added approximately $68.7 billion in supplemental funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs (excluding the Forest Service, which is funded annually under the Interior appropriations bill). Approximately $50.2 billion, or just under three-fourths of the total amount, was provided within the last 10 years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505517/
Bee Health: The Role of Pesticides
This report briefly describes recent scientific research and analysis regarding the potential role of pesticides among the factors affecting the health and well-being of bees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503633/
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, 1988-June 1999
Between 1988 and June 1999, thirteen emergency supplemental or farm disaster acts provided a total of $17 billion in emergency funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The vast majority of this amount has gone directly to farmers, primarily in the form of disaster payments ($12.2 billion) to any farmer suffering a significant crop loss caused by a natural disaster, and "market loss" payments ($3.1 billion) to help grain, cotton, and dairy farmers recover from low farm commodity prices. The remaining $1.7 billion has gone to a wide array of other USDA programs, including those for other forms of farm disaster assistance, farm loans, and overseas food aid. Congress is expected to consider a multi-billion financial assistance package for farmers sometime this year. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs840/
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, FY1989-FY2001
From FY1989 through FY2001 (to date), nineteen appropriations or farm disaster acts have provided $38 billion in emergency funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. Nearly $27 billion, or about 70 percent of the total amount, has been provided for FY1999-FY2001 alone. Since FY1989, the vast majority of the funds has been paid directly to farmers, primarily in the form of “market loss payments” (just under $17 billion, all since FY1999) to compensate for low farm commodity prices, and disaster payments($15.6 billion) paid to any producer who experienced a major crop loss caused by a natural disaster. The remaining $5.4 billion has funded a wide array of other USDA programs, including other forms of farm disaster assistance, farm loans, overseas food aid, food and nutrition programs, and rural development assistance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1063/