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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The 1995 Farm Bill: Research, Education, and Extension Issues

The 1995 Farm Bill: Research, Education, and Extension Issues

Date: November 30, 1996
Creator: Rawson, Jean M.
Description: The House Agriculture Committee has proposed extending Title XVI of the 1990 farm act (P.L. 101-624) for two years. Currently, the title will expire at the end of 1995. The title includes funding authority for the U.s. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) in-house research programs, as well as federal support for cooperative research, higher education, extension programs in the States, and several research grant programs. This report discusses efforts underway to extend this title and reform future legislation. It also outlines federal spending in these areas.
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The 1996 Farm Bill: Comparisons of Selected Provisions with Previous Law

The 1996 Farm Bill: Comparisons of Selected Provisions with Previous Law

Date: April 4, 1996
Creator: Food and Agriculture Section
Description: Final congressional approval was given to H.R. 2854, the Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform (FAIR) Act, otherwise known as the "1996 farm bill," on March 28, 1996. President Clinton signed the bill into law on April 4, 1996 (P.L. 104-127). In tabular format, this CRS report lays out in descriptive, rather than legislative language, the major provisions of the new farm bill in contrast to preceding law.
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Agricultural Exports: Technical Barriers to Trade

Agricultural Exports: Technical Barriers to Trade

Date: October 21, 1997
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: Technical barriers to trade (TBTs) are widely divergent measures that countries use to regulate rnarkets, protect their consumers, and preserve natural resources, but which can also discriminate against imports in favor of domestic products. Most TBTs in agriculture are sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures designed to protect humans, animals, and plants from contaminants, diseases, and pests. In the wake of new trade agreements aimed at reducing tariffs, import quotas, and other trade barriers, TBTs have become more prominent concerns for agricultural exporters and policymakers.
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Agricultural Marketing and Regulatory Provisions of the 1996 Farm Bill

Agricultural Marketing and Regulatory Provisions of the 1996 Farm Bill

Date: April 30, 1996
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: The Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-127), signed into law on April 4, for the first time grants the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) broad-based authority to establish national generic promotion ("check-off") programs for virtually any agricultural commodity. Formerly, individual programs first had to be authorized expressly by Congress. The new law also explicitly authorizes the establishment of new check-off programs for rapeseed and canola, kiwifruit, and popcorn. Other provisions require USDA to establish a new meat and poultry inspection advisory committee; deal with the collection of user fees for the inspection of agricultural imports; and authorize new guidelines to protect horses being transported to slaughter facilities, among other things.
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Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Issues in the 105th Congress

Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Issues in the 105th Congress

Date: January 15, 1998
Creator: Rawson, Jean M.
Description: The public agricultural research, education, and extension system is comprised of a nationwide network of federal and state agricultural research laboratories and departments, land grant Colleges of Agriculture, colleges of forestry and veterinary medicine, and the nationwide Cooperative Extension System. Although the basic authority to conduct agricultural research and extension programs is permanent, Congress since 1977 has provided funding authority and policy guidance for USDA's in-house research programs, and for federal support for cooperative research, higher education, and extension programs in the states, through a title contained in omnibus farm legislation. This report discusses specific pieces of such legislation and details certain agricultural and food-related appropriations.
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Agricultural Research, Education, Extension and Economics Programs: A Primer

Agricultural Research, Education, Extension and Economics Programs: A Primer

Date: March 4, 1997
Creator: Rawson, Jean M.
Description: The 105th Congress is undertaking a thorough review of federal laws and policies affecting the nationwide system of federal and state agricultural research laboratories and agencies, the land grant Colleges of Agriculture and related schools of forestry and veterinary medicine, and the continuing education programs of the Cooperative Extension System. In preparation for hearings and subsequent debate on these subjects, this report provides an overview of all the components of the system, its major programs, and its funding.
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Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws

Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws

Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Description: This report includes a glossary of approximately 1,700 agriculture and related terms (e.g., food programs, conservation, forestry, environmental protection, etc.). Besides defining terms and phrases with specialized meanings for agriculture, the glossary also identifies acronyms, agencies, programs, and laws related to agriculture.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Animal Agriculture: Issues for the 106th Congress

Animal Agriculture: Issues for the 106th Congress

Date: September 2, 1999
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses a variety of animal agriculture issues that generated debate during the 106th Congress, including low livestock prices, especially for hogs. Economic difficulties have revived questions such as the impacts of consolidation in the livestock industry, and the price effects of animal imports from Canada and Mexico. This report also discusses a number of legislative proposals to assist livestock producers and enforce sanitary and phytosanitary standards, as well as continuing trade disputes and negotiations with China, the European Union, New Zealand, and Australia.
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Appropriations for FY1999: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY1999: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Date: December 21, 1998
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Agriculture Appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2000: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2000: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Date: December 6, 1999
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Agriculture Appropriations.
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Aquaculture and the Federal Role

Aquaculture and the Federal Role

Date: September 9, 1993
Creator: Buck, Eugene H & Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: Aquaculture is broadly defined as the production of fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants in a controlled environment. This report discusses the growth of U.S. aquaculture in the decade preceding 1993, and the subsequent debate about what role, if any, the Federal Government should play in supporting the industry. Relevant legislation and policies are also discussed.
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Attorneys' Fees in the State Tobacco Litigation Cases

Attorneys' Fees in the State Tobacco Litigation Cases

Date: September 23, 1997
Creator: Contrubis, John
Description: In the past few years, many states have filed complaints against the tobacco industry in state court to recover Medicaid costs paid by the states to treat their citizens for tobacco related illnesses. The states are also attempting to recover other damages, such as punitive damages, against the tobacco industry. For various reasons, the states have hired private attorneys to assist the state Attorneys General in prosecuting these cases. In most cases, the retention of private counsel has included a fee agreement specifying the amount of compensation that these attorneys will receive for their services. These agreements are not uniform among the states, but most tend to provide some form of contingency fee arrangement. Some of these states have developed a sliding scale contingency fee schedule which varies with the amount of time spent on the litigation and whether a trial has begun. This report briefly summarizes the different fee agreements that the states have with private counsel.
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Cattle Prices: Questions and Answers

Cattle Prices: Questions and Answers

Date: November 14, 1996
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: After 7 years of relatively high returns, cattle producers by 1994 were experiencing steeply falling prices--mainly caused by abundant supplies of cattle destined for U.S. feedlots. Record-high grain prices and dry pastures amplified the problem. Because of the lengthy biological cycle governing cattle production, large numbers will be coming onto the market for some time, as producers undertake the slow process of curtailing herd expansion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Most-Favored-Nation Status: U.S. Wheat, Corn, and Soybean Exports

China's Most-Favored-Nation Status: U.S. Wheat, Corn, and Soybean Exports

Date: June 4, 1996
Creator: Sek, Lenore
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Most-Favored-Nation Status: U.S. Wheat Exports

China's Most-Favored-Nation Status: U.S. Wheat Exports

Date: June 1, 1993
Creator: Ek, Carl & Epstein, Susan B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Most-Favored-Nation Status: U.S. Wheat Exports

China's Most-Favored-Nation Status: U.S. Wheat Exports

Date: May 24, 1994
Creator: Ek, Carl & Epstein, Susan B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Compensating Farmers for the Tobacco Settlement

Compensating Farmers for the Tobacco Settlement

Date: July 6, 1998
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Description: The legislative proposals designed to reduce smoking, primarily by teenagers, are likely to have negative economic consequences for tobacco growers and tobacco-dependent communities. This report discusses the possibility of some kind of compensation to farmers as part of the settlement package legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conservation Compliance for Agriculture: Status and Policy Issues

Conservation Compliance for Agriculture: Status and Policy Issues

Date: April 10, 1998
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: This program, known as "conservation compliance," was amended in 1990 and 1996. This paper reviews the compliance concept, the program requirements, and the implementation record. It also introduces three policy topics: the effect of compliance on erosion rates and patterns; the effectiveness and flexibility of implementation; and the possible impact of changes to commodity policies enacted in the 1996 farm bill.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conservation Reserve Program: Policy Issues for the 1995 Farm Bill

Conservation Reserve Program: Policy Issues for the 1995 Farm Bill

Date: December 19, 1994
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985, enables producers to bid to retire highly erodible or environmentally sensitive crop land for 10 years (or longer under certain circumstances). Successful bidders receive annual rental payments, and cost-sharing and technical assistance to install approved plantings. The program was to enroll between 40 and 45 million acres before 1996. Program goals are to reduce erosion and excess production, and more recently, to provide other environmental benefits. To date, about 36.5 million acres have been enrolled.
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Conservation Reserve Program - Preliminary Results from the 15th Signup

Conservation Reserve Program - Preliminary Results from the 15th Signup

Date: April 18, 1997
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: This report includes a table listing, by state, the: Number of bids, or offers, received; Total acres offered for enrollment; Acres offered that are currently enrolled in the CRP; Acres offered are not currently enrolled in the CRP; Acres on which contracts expire on September 30, 1997; Percentage of acres currently in the program that were offered for reenrollment; and Percentage of acres offered that are not currently enrolled in the CRP.
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Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Policy Issues

Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Policy Issues

Date: February 24, 1997
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985, enables producers to bid to retire highly erodible or environmentally sensitive cropland, usually for 10 years. Participants receive annual rental and cost-sharing payments, and technical assistance to install approved plantings. Up to 36.4 million acres have been enrolled; current enrollment is estimated to be 32.9 million acres.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conservation Spending in Agriculture: Trends and Implications

Conservation Spending in Agriculture: Trends and Implications

Date: October 6, 1999
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: Conservation spending under various federal agricultural statutes has increased since the early 1980s, and the mix of activities that are funded has changed during this time period. These funds have become an increasingly important source of income to farmers. This report examines conservation program funding since FY1983 in the context of both changing conservation policies and programs, and other farm program sources of income to farmers. This report will be updated if events warrant. Conservation Spending in Agriculture: Trends and Implications
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The Economics of Agricultural Policy

The Economics of Agricultural Policy

Date: February 20, 1992
Creator: Carr, A. Barry
Description: An English Act of 1663 imposed a duty on grain imported from abroad whenever the domestic price was below a legislatively set price floor. The English farmer enjoyed a virtual monopoly in the domestic market. By the same token, he was allowed to export grain whenever the domestic price exceeded the price floor, and, after 1673, was granted a bounty (subsidy) on grain exports.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, 1988-June 1999

Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, 1988-June 1999

Date: July 19, 1999
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Between 1988 and June 1999, thirteen emergency supplemental or farm disaster acts provided a total of $17 billion in emergency funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The vast majority of this amount has gone directly to farmers, primarily in the form of disaster payments ($12.2 billion) to any farmer suffering a significant crop loss caused by a natural disaster, and "market loss" payments ($3.1 billion) to help grain, cotton, and dairy farmers recover from low farm commodity prices. The remaining $1.7 billion has gone to a wide array of other USDA programs, including those for other forms of farm disaster assistance, farm loans, and overseas food aid. Congress is expected to consider a multi-billion financial assistance package for farmers sometime this year.
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