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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws

Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws

Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Description: This report includes a glossary of approximately 1,700 agriculture and related terms (e.g., food programs, conservation, forestry, environmental protection, etc.). Besides defining terms and phrases with specialized meanings for agriculture, the glossary also identifies acronyms, agencies, programs, and laws related to agriculture.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Aquaculture and the Federal Role

Aquaculture and the Federal Role

Date: September 9, 1993
Creator: Buck, Eugene H & Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: Aquaculture is broadly defined as the production of fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants in a controlled environment. This report discusses the growth of U.S. aquaculture in the decade preceding 1993, and the subsequent debate about what role, if any, the Federal Government should play in supporting the industry. Relevant legislation and policies are also discussed.
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Agricultural Exports: Technical Barriers to Trade

Agricultural Exports: Technical Barriers to Trade

Date: October 21, 1997
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: Technical barriers to trade (TBTs) are widely divergent measures that countries use to regulate rnarkets, protect their consumers, and preserve natural resources, but which can also discriminate against imports in favor of domestic products. Most TBTs in agriculture are sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures designed to protect humans, animals, and plants from contaminants, diseases, and pests. In the wake of new trade agreements aimed at reducing tariffs, import quotas, and other trade barriers, TBTs have become more prominent concerns for agricultural exporters and policymakers.
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Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable Agriculture

Date: October 25, 1995
Creator: Rawson, Jean M
Description: None
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Federal Farm Promotion ("Check-off") Programs

Federal Farm Promotion ("Check-off") Programs

Date: May 3, 1996
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses legislation establishing national generic promotion ("check-off') programs for 20 specified farm commodities. Thirteen of the 20 authorized programs are now in effect.
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Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, 1988-June 1999

Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, 1988-June 1999

Date: July 19, 1999
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: Between 1988 and June 1999, thirteen emergency supplemental or farm disaster acts provided a total of $17 billion in emergency funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The vast majority of this amount has gone directly to farmers, primarily in the form of disaster payments ($12.2 billion) to any farmer suffering a significant crop loss caused by a natural disaster, and "market loss" payments ($3.1 billion) to help grain, cotton, and dairy farmers recover from low farm commodity prices. The remaining $1.7 billion has gone to a wide array of other USDA programs, including those for other forms of farm disaster assistance, farm loans, and overseas food aid. Congress is expected to consider a multi-billion financial assistance package for farmers sometime this year.
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Conservation Compliance for Agriculture: Status and Policy Issues

Conservation Compliance for Agriculture: Status and Policy Issues

Date: April 10, 1998
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: This program, known as "conservation compliance," was amended in 1990 and 1996. This paper reviews the compliance concept, the program requirements, and the implementation record. It also introduces three policy topics: the effect of compliance on erosion rates and patterns; the effectiveness and flexibility of implementation; and the possible impact of changes to commodity policies enacted in the 1996 farm bill.
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The 'Terminator Gene' and Other Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (GURTs) in Crops

The 'Terminator Gene' and Other Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (GURTs) in Crops

Date: October 21, 1999
Creator: Segarra, Alejandro E & Rawson, Jean M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Farm Income: Recent National and Regional Changes and the Federal Response

U.S. Farm Income: Recent National and Regional Changes and the Federal Response

Date: December 15, 1998
Creator: Heykoop, Jerry & Jones, Jean Yavis
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Managing Farm Risk in a New Policy Era

Managing Farm Risk in a New Policy Era

Date: January 22, 1999
Creator: Chite, Ralph M & Jickling, Mark
Description: This report discusses the enhancements to the crop insurance and revenue insurance programs that are expected to be considered by the 106th Congress in order to improve the farm financial safety net and preclude the need for ad hoc legislative assistance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Disaster Assistance: USDA Programs and Recent Legislative Action

Farm Disaster Assistance: USDA Programs and Recent Legislative Action

Date: November 4, 1998
Creator: Chite, Ralph M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm and Food Support Under USDA's Section 32 Program

Farm and Food Support Under USDA's Section 32 Program

Date: June 22, 1999
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses "Section 32", which is a permanent appropriation that since 1935 has earmarked the equivalent of 30% of annual customs receipts to support the farm sector through a variety of activities. Today, most of this sizeable appropriation (now about $5.7 billion per year) is simply transferred directly into the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) child nutrition account to fund school feeding and other programs.
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U.S. Agriculture and the International Monetary Fund

U.S. Agriculture and the International Monetary Fund

Date: July 6, 1998
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: None
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U.S.-European Agricultural Trade: Food Safety and Biotechnology Issues

U.S.-European Agricultural Trade: Food Safety and Biotechnology Issues

Date: October 21, 1998
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Humane Treatment of Farm Animals: Overview and Selected Issues

Humane Treatment of Farm Animals: Overview and Selected Issues

Date: December 6, 1995
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tobacco-Related Activities and Programs in the Federal Government: A Summary

Tobacco-Related Activities and Programs in the Federal Government: A Summary

Date: February 10, 1999
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Tobacco-Related Programs and Activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture: Operation and Cost

Tobacco-Related Programs and Activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture: Operation and Cost

Date: July 6, 1998
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Pesticide Residue Regulation: Analysis of Food Quality Protection Act Implementation

Pesticide Residue Regulation: Analysis of Food Quality Protection Act Implementation

Date: August 3, 1999
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
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Hog Prices: Questions and Answers

Hog Prices: Questions and Answers

Date: December 15, 1999
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: This report discusses price changes in the pork industry. In late 1998, the lowest hog prices in decades created a crisis in the pork industry and prompted the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Congress to take a series of actions to assist producers, including direct cash payments, and the purchase of extra pork products to reduce market supplies. The industry sought additional aid as low prices persisted into 1999.
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Cattle Prices: Questions and Answers

Cattle Prices: Questions and Answers

Date: November 14, 1996
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: After 7 years of relatively high returns, cattle producers by 1994 were experiencing steeply falling prices--mainly caused by abundant supplies of cattle destined for U.S. feedlots. Record-high grain prices and dry pastures amplified the problem. Because of the lengthy biological cycle governing cattle production, large numbers will be coming onto the market for some time, as producers undertake the slow process of curtailing herd expansion.
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Conservation Spending in Agriculture: Trends and Implications

Conservation Spending in Agriculture: Trends and Implications

Date: October 6, 1999
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: Conservation spending under various federal agricultural statutes has increased since the early 1980s, and the mix of activities that are funded has changed during this time period. These funds have become an increasingly important source of income to farmers. This report examines conservation program funding since FY1983 in the context of both changing conservation policies and programs, and other farm program sources of income to farmers. This report will be updated if events warrant. Conservation Spending in Agriculture: Trends and Implications
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Conservation Reserve Program - Preliminary Results from the 15th Signup

Conservation Reserve Program - Preliminary Results from the 15th Signup

Date: April 18, 1997
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: This report includes a table listing, by state, the: Number of bids, or offers, received; Total acres offered for enrollment; Acres offered that are currently enrolled in the CRP; Acres offered are not currently enrolled in the CRP; Acres on which contracts expire on September 30, 1997; Percentage of acres currently in the program that were offered for reenrollment; and Percentage of acres offered that are not currently enrolled in the CRP.
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Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Policy Issues

Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Policy Issues

Date: February 24, 1997
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A
Description: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985, enables producers to bid to retire highly erodible or environmentally sensitive cropland, usually for 10 years. Participants receive annual rental and cost-sharing payments, and technical assistance to install approved plantings. Up to 36.4 million acres have been enrolled; current enrollment is estimated to be 32.9 million acres.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Economics of Agricultural Policy

The Economics of Agricultural Policy

Date: February 20, 1992
Creator: Carr, A. Barry
Description: An English Act of 1663 imposed a duty on grain imported from abroad whenever the domestic price was below a legislatively set price floor. The English farmer enjoyed a virtual monopoly in the domestic market. By the same token, he was allowed to export grain whenever the domestic price exceeded the price floor, and, after 1673, was granted a bounty (subsidy) on grain exports.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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