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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
401(k) Plans and Retirement Savings: Issues for Congress
Over the past 25 years, defined contribution (DC) plans - including 401(k) plans - have become the most prevalent form of employer-sponsored retirement plan in the United States. This report describes seven major policy issues with respect to defined contribution plans: 1) access to employer-sponsored retirement plans; 2) participation in employer-sponsored plans; 3) contribution rates; 4) investment choices; 5) fee disclosure; 6) leakage from retirement savings; and 7) converting retirement savings into income. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26189/
Beneficiary Information and Decision Supports for the Medicare-Endorsed Prescription Drug Discount Card
On December 8, 2003 the President signed into law the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA, P.L. 108-173). This legislation establishes a Medicare prescription drug benefit, effective January 1, 2006. In the interim, the legislation requires the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to establish a temporary program of Medicare-endorsed prescription drug discount cards. This report discusses the objectives and benefits of this legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6351/
Benefits for the Aged and the Federal Budget: Short- and Long-Term Projections
As the 108th Congress addresses short-term budget decisions, it may also want to consider the long-run impacts of those decisions and the major shifts in budget composition that are underway. Congress may be pressed to add new benefits in response to population aging, such as improved support for long-term care and broader Medicare drug coverage. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7483/
Civil Service Retirement Bills in the 106th Congress
Among the civil service retirement issues addressed in bills introduced thus far in the 106th Congress are the correction of retirement coverage errors for federal employees assigned to the wrong retirement system; immediate eligibility for federal employees to participate in the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP); improved portability of pension benefits; and repeal of the temporary increase in employee retirement contributions that was mandated by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Other bills would expand TSP eligibility to include members of the armed services; improve pension coverage for temporary and part-time federal employees; and designate several categories of federal employees as law enforcement officers for purposes of determining their retirement benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1241/
Concurrent Receipt: Background and Issues for Congress
"Concurrent Receipt" refers to the simultaneous receipt of two types of monetary benefits: military retired pay and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability compensation. This report addresses the two primary components of the concurrent receipt program: Combat-Related Special Compensation (CRSC) and Concurrent Retirement and Disability Payments (CRDP). It reviews the possible legislative expansion of the program to additional populations and provide several potential options for Congress to consider. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31338/
Converting Retirement Savings into Income: Annuities and Periodic Withdrawals
To a worker contemplating retirement, there is perhaps no more important question than "How long will my money last?" Congress has a strong interest in the income security of older Americans because much of their income is either provided directly from public programs like Social Security, or in the case of pensions and retirement accounts, is subsidized through tax deductions and deferrals. This report looks at strategies to help deal with the following risks: longevity, investment, inflation, and unexpected events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83896/
Converting Retirement Savings into Income: Annuities and Periodic Withdrawals
To a worker contemplating retirement, there is perhaps no more important question than "How long will my money last?" Congress has a strong interest in the income security of older Americans because much of their income is either provided directly from public programs like Social Security, or in the case of pensions and retirement accounts, is subsidized through tax deductions and deferrals. This report discusses risks involved with retirement fund disbursement and strategies for dealing with such risks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83870/
The Cost of Prescription Drugs for the Uninsured Elderly and Legislative Approaches
The purpose of this report is to explain why many of those who are least able to afford high drug costs are those who are most frequently charged the most. This report describes the basic economic theory underlying price differentiation and, in the context of the pharmaceutical market, analyzes the role and behavior of pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs), pharmaceutical manufacturers, and retail pharmacies, respectively. It also looks at a number of the criticisms that have been made of the practice of differential pricing. Finally, this report discusses various policy approaches aimed at assisting the elderly to purchase prescription drugs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1520/
A CRS Review of 10 States: Home and Community-Based Services — States Seek to Change the Face of Long-Term Care: Indiana
Many states have devoted significant efforts to respond to the desire for home and community-based care for persons with disabilities and their families. Nevertheless, financing of nursing home care, chiefly by Medicaid, still dominates most states’ spending for long-term care today. To assist Congress in understanding issues that states face in providing long-term care services, the Congressional Research Service (CRS) undertook a study of 10 states in 2002. This report, one in a series of 10 state reports, presents background and analysis about long-term care in Indiana. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7715/
End-of-Life Care: Services, Costs, Ethics, and Quality of Care
This report provides information on various aspects of end-of-life care: (1) demographic and historical changes affecting death and dying in the United States (2) the definitions of end-of-life, palliative, and hospice care (3) costs associated with end-of-life care (4) end-of-life care laws and ethics (5) quality of care at the end of life and (6) policy issues that would modify or expand the federal government's role in addressing end-of-life care. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743362/
Factors Affecting the Demand for Long-Term Care Insurance: Issues for Congress
This report will discuss the role of long-term care insurance (LTCI) in financing long term care (LTC) costs and current trends in the LTCI industry; factors affecting the demand for LTCI, including cost and complexity of the product and adequacy of consumer protections; and key features of legislative proposals in the 111th Congress to address these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689124/
Federal Spending for Older Americans
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7401/
The Financial Outlook for Social Security and Medicare
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1923/
The Financial Outlook for Social Security and Medicare
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3372/
The Financial Outlook for Social Security and Medicare
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5304/
The Financial Outlook for Social Security and Medicare
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs778/
The Financial Outlook for Social Security and Medicare
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6035/
H.R. 6500, The Thrift Savings Plan Enhancement Act of 2008
This report describes the various aspects of the Thrift Savings Plan Enhancement Act of 2008. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10781/
Housing for the Elderly: Legislation in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs995/
Implications of the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit for State Budgets
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7380/
Income and Poverty Among Older Americans in 2007
This report describes the income and poverty status of the 36.8 million Americans age 65 and older who were living in households in 2007. The report also describes how the proportion of total income received from each source differs between high-income individuals and households and low-income individuals and households. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689291/
Income and Poverty Among Older Americans in 2008
This report describes the sources and amounts of income received by the 37.8 million Americans aged 65 and older who lived in non-institutional settings in 2008. The report also describes how the proportion of total income received from each source differs between high-income individuals and households and low-income individuals and households. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689422/
Income of Americans Aged 65 and Older, 1968 to 2008
This report presents data collected by the Census Bureau in the Current Population Survey from 1969 through 2009 about the employment status and the sources and amounts of income received by people aged 65 and older. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627049/
Increases in Tricare Costs: Background and Options for Congress
In its FY2007 budget submission, the Department of Defense (DOD) proposed increases in Tricare enrollment fees, deductibles, and pharmacy co-payments for retired beneficiaries not yet eligible for Medicare. The raises were justified by DOD as necessary to constrain the growth of health care spending as a proportion of the overall defense budget in the next decade. Many beneficiaries argued that the proposed hikes were unfair and unnecessary. The FY2007 Defense Authorization Act prohibited increases in premiums, deductibles, and co-payments prior to September 30, 2007. The FY2008 National Defense Authoriztion Act extended the prohibition of increases in co-payments and enrollment fees until October 2008 and Congress may move to extend them further. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10666/
Increases in Tricare Costs: Background and Options for Congress
In its FY2007, FY2008, and FY2009 budget submissions, the Department of Defense (DOD) proposed increases in Tricare enrollment fees, deductibles, and pharmacy co-payments for retired beneficiaries not yet eligible for Medicare. In passing the FY2009 National Defense Authorization Act, Congress included measures establishing demonstration projects intended to find ways to contain costs through increased use of preventive care services by TRICARE beneficiaries. The scope of these measures are limited. Defense health care spending will likely remain an issue for the DOD in the next Administration, and Congress can anticipate being asked to consider new proposals to constrain costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10667/
Increases in Tricare Costs: Background and Options for Congress
In its FY2007, FY2008, and FY2009 budget submissions, the Department of Defense (DOD) proposed increases in Tricare enrollment fees, deductibles, and pharmacy co-payments for retired beneficiaries not yet eligible for Medicare. In passing the FY2009 National Defense Authorization Act, Congress included measures establishing demonstration projects intended to find ways to contain costs through increased use of preventive care services by TRICARE beneficiaries. The scope of these measures are limited. Defense health care spending will likely remain an issue for the DOD in the next Administration, and Congress can anticipate being asked to consider new proposals to constrain costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10665/
Increases in Tricare Costs: Background and Options for Congress
In its FY2007, FY2008, and FY2009 budget submissions, the Department of Defense (DOD) proposed increases in Tricare enrollment fees, deductibles, and pharmacy co-payments for retired beneficiaries not yet eligible for Medicare. In passing the FY2009 National Defense Authorization Act, Congress included measures establishing demonstration projects intended to find ways to contain costs through increased use of preventive care services by TRICARE beneficiaries. The scope of these measures are limited. Defense health care spending will likely remain an issue for the DOD in the next Administration, and Congress can anticipate being asked to consider new proposals to constrain costs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10664/
Increases in Tricare Costs: Background and Options for Congress
This report discusses budgetary matters for the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), specifically regarding past instances of debate regarding the Tricare system. The dollar amounts allocated to health care in the budget of the DOD have more than doubled since FY2001, growing from about $17 billion to over $44.8 billion in FY2009. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743367/
Major Provisions of the Medicare Modernization and Prescription Drug Act of 2002, H.R. 4954, as Passed by the House
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2081/
Medicaid: Eligibility for the Aged and Disabled
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7023/
Medicaid, SCHIP, and Other Health Provisions in H.R. 5661: Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000
This report discusses Medicaid and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The report also discusses other major health provisions provisions of H.R. 5661 are incorporated, by reference into H.R. 4577, the Consolidated Appropriations Act 2001. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1362/
Medicare Advantage
This report is an overview of the Medicare Advantage (MA) program, an alternative way for Medicare beneficiaries to receive covered benefits, and includes legislative history and analysis of recent trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795844/
Medicare Beneficiary Access to Care: The Effects of New Prospective Payment Systems on Outpatient Hospital Care, Home Health Care, and Skilled Nursing Facility Care
This report discusses the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA 97), which required that prospective payment systems replace retrospective cost-based reimbursement systems for Medicare beneficiaries receiving care in hospital outpatient departments, from home health care agencies, and in skilled nursing facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1047/
Medicare: Beneficiary Cost-Sharing Under Prescription Drug Legislation
This report provides an analysis of how the cost-sharing and premium provisions under the Prescription Drug and Medicare Improvement Act of 2003 (S. 1) and the Medicare Prescription Drug and Modernization Act of 2003 (H bill would affect the amount that a beneficiary would pay annually for prescription drugs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3698/
Medicare: Beneficiary Cost-Sharing Under Proposed Prescription Drug Benefits
This report provides background on how the cost-sharing and premium provisions under each bill would affect the amount that a beneficiary pays annually for prescription drugs. In addition, this report gives examples of how annual cost-sharing would differ for beneficiaries with various levels of total prescription drug spending in 2006 under the plans. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3700/
Medicare: Beneficiary Cost-Sharing Under Proposed Prescription Drug Benefits
This report examines these proposals as well as the “Medicare Rx Drug Benefit and Discount Act of 2003,” which was introduced by Representative Charles Rangel, the ranking member of the House Ways and Means Committee. Specifically, this report provides background on how the cost-sharing and premium provisions under each bill would affect the amount that a beneficiary pays annually for prescription drugs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3699/
Medicare: Changes to Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA 97, P.L. 105-33) Provisions
This report summarizes the major provisions of the agreement between the by House and Senate negotiators on the Medicare provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs829/
Medicare+Choice Payments
This report discusses the M+C program that established new rules for beneficiary and plan participation. This report focuses on M+C payments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3697/
Medicare+Choice Payments
This report discusses the M+C program that established new rules for beneficiary and plan participation. This report focuses on M+C payments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2080/
Medicare Endorsed Prescription Drug Discount Card Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6119/
Medicare Expansion: President Clinton's Proposals to Allow Coverage Before Age 65
This report discusses medicare expansion; President Clinton's proposal to allow people ages 62 through 64 to buy into Medicare if they do not have access to employer-sponsored or federal health insurance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs502/
Medicare: Financing the Part A Hospital Insurance Program
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Medicare: Financing the Part A Hospital Insurance Program
This report discusses Medicare, which consists of two distinct parts — Part A (Hospital Insurance (HI)) and Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI)). Part A is financed primarily through payroll taxes levied on current workers and their employers. Income from these taxes is credited to the HI trust fund. Part B is financed through a combination of monthly premiums paid by current enrollees and general revenues. Income from these sources is credited to the SMI trust fund. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs501/
Medicare: Major Prescription Drug Provisions of Selected Bills
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2332/
Medicare: Major Prescription Drug Provisions of Selected Bills
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2333/
Medicare: Major Prescription Drug Provisions of Selected Bills
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2334/
Medicare/Medicaid Reimbursement: Selected References
This report is a compilation of selected articles, books, and executive agency and congressional publications on Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement, primarily to health facilities and physicians. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8868/
Medicare: Part B Premium Penalty
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7324/
Medicare Payment Policies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6350/
Medicare: Payments to HMOs and Other Private Plans Under the Medicare+Choice Program
This report describes how payments will be calculated under the Medicare+Choice program established under the new law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs372/
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