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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC): A Fact Sheet
The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) is a federal government agency established in 1974 by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA; P.L. 93-406). It was created to protect the pensions of participants and beneficiaries covered by private sector, defined benefit (DB) plans. The PBGC is chaired by the Secretary of Labor, with the Secretaries of the Treasury and Commerce serving as board members. In the 112th Congress, an amendment offered by Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid to S. 1813, Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21), contains provisions that would address the use of excess defined benefit pension plan assets and the interest rates that defined benefit plans use to value plan liabilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85364/
Medicare Advantage
This report is an overview of the Medicare Advantage (MA) program, an alternative way for Medicare beneficiaries to receive covered benefits, and includes legislative history and analysis of recent trends. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795844/
Medicare: Private Contracts
This report discusses private contracting for medicare,which is the term used to describe situations where a physician and a patient agree not to submit a claim for a service which would otherwise be covered and paid for by Medicare. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs373/
Medicare Structural Reform: Background and Options
THis report provides a brief overview of major issues underlying the debate about possible structural reforms or improvements to the current Medicare system. Medicare is a nationwide health insurance program for the aged and certain disabled persons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824714/
Medicare Primer
This report provides a general overview of the Medicare program including descriptions of the program's history, eligibility criteria, covered services, provider payment systems, and program administration and financing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847725/
Federal Spending for Older Americans
This report discusses the share of the federal budget devoted to older Americans, which is growing. The federal government currently spends more than one-third of its budget on benefits and programs for older Americans. For people age 65 and over, estimated FY2007 spending for Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid alone is $833 billion. Spending for retired federal employees and military personnel and for veterans is also significant, and smaller programs add to the total as well. Tax expenditures might also be taken into account to obtain a more complete budget picture. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822449/
Older Americans Act: FY2015 Appropriations Overview
This report discusses Older Americans Act (OAA) funding. It begins with an overview of OAA's FY2015 funding and provides a detailed breakdown of current-year funding for each of the act's programs and activities. The report then reviews OAA's funding history since FY2001. Next, it summarizes FY2015 legislative activity with respect to OAA appropriations. It concludes with a discussion of FY2015 funding decisions for selected OAA programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503307/
Converting Retirement Savings into Income: Annuities and Periodic Withdrawals
To a worker contemplating retirement, there is perhaps no more important question than "How long will my money last?" Congress has a strong interest in the income security of older Americans because much of their income is either provided directly from public programs like Social Security, or in the case of pensions and retirement accounts, is subsidized through tax deductions and deferrals. This report looks at strategies to help deal with the following risks: longevity, investment, inflation, and unexpected events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83896/
Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress
The first section of this report discusses demographics and record keeping of missing adults and unidentified remains, as well as some of the factors that may contribute to the disappearance of adults. This section also discusses federally funded databases that are used to track data on missing adults and unidentified individuals. The second section of the report describes the federal programs and initiatives to assist in locating missing adults, including funding data where applicable. Finally, the third section discusses issues about the federal role in missing adult cases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822380/
Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress
The first section of this report discusses demographics and record keeping of missing adults and unidentified remains, and some of the factors that may contribute to the disappearance of adults. This section also discusses federally funded databases that are used to track data on missing adults and unidentified individuals. The second section of the report describes the federal programs and initiatives to assist in locating missing adults, including funding data for FY2002 through FY2008, where applicable. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc819365/
Missing Adults: Background, Federal Programs, and Issues for Congress
The first section of this report discusses demographics and record keeping of missing adults and unidentified remains, as well as some of the factors that may contribute to the disappearance of adults. This section also discusses federally-funded databases that are used to track data on missing adults and unidentified individuals. The second section of the report describes the federal programs and initiatives to assist in locating missing adults, including funding data where applicable. Finally, the third section discusses issues about the federal role in missing adult cases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820830/
Overview of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003
This report examines the the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, which creates a prescription drug benefit for Medicare beneficiaries and establishes a new Medicare Advantage program to replace the current Medicare+Choice program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855798/
Income of Americans Aged 65 and Older, 1968 to 2008
This report presents data collected by the Census Bureau in the Current Population Survey from 1969 through 2009 about the employment status and the sources and amounts of income received by people aged 65 and older. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627049/
Converting Retirement Savings into Income: Annuities and Periodic Withdrawals
To a worker contemplating retirement, there is perhaps no more important question than "How long will my money last?" Congress has a strong interest in the income security of older Americans because much of their income is either provided directly from public programs like Social Security, or in the case of pensions and retirement accounts, is subsidized through tax deductions and deferrals. This report discusses risks involved with retirement fund disbursement and strategies for dealing with such risks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83870/
Pension Sponsorship and Participation: Summary of Recent Trends
This report discusses trends that will affect the economic well-being of future retirees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689315/
Pension Sponsorship and Participation: Summary of Recent Trends
This report discusses trends that will affect the economic well-being of future retirees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689483/
Medicare's Hospice Benefit
This report discusses Medicare's hospice benefit, which was provides care that specializes in the relief of the pain and symptoms associated with a terminal illness and the provision of supportive and counseling services to patients and their families during the final stages of a patient's illness and death. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700727/
Medicare: Financing the Part A Hospital Insurance Program
This report discusses Medicare, which consists of two distinct parts — Part A (Hospital Insurance (HI)) and Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI)). Part A is financed primarily through payroll taxes levied on current workers and their employers. Income from these taxes is credited to the HI trust fund. Part B is financed through a combination of monthly premiums paid by current enrollees and general revenues. Income from these sources is credited to the SMI trust fund. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs501/
Medicare Expansion: President Clinton's Proposals to Allow Coverage Before Age 65
This report discusses medicare expansion; President Clinton's proposal to allow people ages 62 through 64 to buy into Medicare if they do not have access to employer-sponsored or federal health insurance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs502/
Medicare Beneficiary Access to Care: The Effects of New Prospective Payment Systems on Outpatient Hospital Care, Home Health Care, and Skilled Nursing Facility Care
This report discusses the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA 97), which required that prospective payment systems replace retrospective cost-based reimbursement systems for Medicare beneficiaries receiving care in hospital outpatient departments, from home health care agencies, and in skilled nursing facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1047/
Medicare Home Health Benefit Primer: Benefit Basics and Issues
This report describes home health eligibility criteria, home health services, characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries who use home health services, and home health providers. Further, this report describes in detail the Medicare home health prospective payment system (HH PPS), provides an overview of Medicare home health payments, and discusses issues for Congress related to the Medicare home health benefit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc808302/
Older Displaced Workers in the Context of an Aging and Slowly Growing Population
This report analyzes the labor market experiences of those older workers who have involuntarily lost long-held jobs for reasons unrelated to their own performance (e.g., veteran factory workers at plants closed because of import competition, experienced information technology workers whose jobs have been outsourced to workers in other countries, and mid-level managers in positions eliminated through corporate restructuring). It examines current policies targeted at the reemployment of older displaced workers which, if successful, might lengthen their stay in the workforce. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821055/
Prescription Drug Coverage Under Medicaid
Medicaid is a joint federal-state entitlement program that pays for medical services on behalf of certain groups of low-income persons. It is the third largest social program in the federal budget, exceeded only by Social Security and Medicare and is typically the second largest spending item for states. This report discusses prescription drug policies under the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7496/
Medicare Home Health Benefit Primer: Benefit Basics and Issues
This report describes home health eligibility criteria, home health services, characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries who use home health services, and home health providers. Further, this report describes in detail the Medicare home health prospective payment system (HH PPS), provides an overview of Medicare home health payments, and discusses issues for Congress related to the Medicare home health benefit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820974/
Medicare Prescription Drug Proposals: Estimates of Aged Beneficiaries Who Fall Below Income Criteria, by State
This report discusses bills related to Medicare benefits, which include additional assistance for low-income beneficiaries. The assistance would have been in the form of reduced, subsidized or eliminated premiums, deductibles and other cost-sharing. Proposals in the 108th Congress will probably also include some of these features for low-income beneficiaries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847645/
Older Americans Act: 106th Congress Legislation
This report provides brief legislative background for Older Americans Act programs expired at the end of FY1995. The report discusses issues with re-authorization and 106th Congress proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821096/
Income and Poverty Among Older Americans in 2007
This report describes the income and poverty status of the 36.8 million Americans age 65 and older who were living in households in 2007. The report also describes how the proportion of total income received from each source differs between high-income individuals and households and low-income individuals and households. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689291/
Factors Affecting the Demand for Long-Term Care Insurance: Issues for Congress
This report will discuss the role of long-term care insurance (LTCI) in financing long term care (LTC) costs and current trends in the LTCI industry; factors affecting the demand for LTCI, including cost and complexity of the product and adequacy of consumer protections; and key features of legislative proposals in the 111th Congress to address these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689124/
Income and Poverty Among Older Americans in 2008
This report describes the sources and amounts of income received by the 37.8 million Americans aged 65 and older who lived in non-institutional settings in 2008. The report also describes how the proportion of total income received from each source differs between high-income individuals and households and low-income individuals and households. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689422/
Regulating Private Pensions: A Brief Summary of ERISA
This report briefly discusses the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), and how it protects the interests of participants and beneficiaries in private-sector employee benefit plans. ERISA covers a number of fringe benefits provided by employers, but most of its provisions deal with pension plans. Pension plans sponsored by the federal, state, and local governments, or by churches generally are exempt from ERISA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29496/
Increases in Tricare Costs: Background and Options for Congress
This report discusses budgetary matters for the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), specifically regarding past instances of debate regarding the Tricare system. The dollar amounts allocated to health care in the budget of the DOD have more than doubled since FY2001, growing from about $17 billion to over $44.8 billion in FY2009. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743367/
Medicare: Payments to HMOs and Other Private Plans Under the Medicare+Choice Program
This report describes how payments will be calculated under the Medicare+Choice program established under the new law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs372/
Medicare: Prescription Drug Proposals
This report provides an overview of the President’s plan and the legislation introduced to date in the 106th Congress. It digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1048/
Medicare: Physician Payments
This report discusses payments for physicians services under Medicare that are made on the basis of a fee schedule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8886/
Medicare: Payments to Physicians
This report discusses payments for physicians services under Medicare that are made on the basis of a fee schedule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs503/
Medicare: Beneficiary Cost-Sharing Under Proposed Prescription Drug Benefits
This report provides background on how the cost-sharing and premium provisions under each bill would affect the amount that a beneficiary pays annually for prescription drugs. In addition, this report gives examples of how annual cost-sharing would differ for beneficiaries with various levels of total prescription drug spending in 2006 under the plans. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3700/
Medicare/Medicaid Reimbursement: Selected References
This report is a compilation of selected articles, books, and executive agency and congressional publications on Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement, primarily to health facilities and physicians. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8868/
Medicare: Changes to Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA 97, P.L. 105-33) Provisions
This report summarizes the major provisions of the agreement between the by House and Senate negotiators on the Medicare provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs829/
Medicare+Choice Payments
This report discusses the M+C program that established new rules for beneficiary and plan participation. This report focuses on M+C payments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3697/
Medicare+Choice Payments
This report discusses the M+C program that established new rules for beneficiary and plan participation. This report focuses on M+C payments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2080/
Medicaid, SCHIP, and Other Health Provisions in H.R. 5661: Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000
This report discusses Medicaid and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The report also discusses other major health provisions provisions of H.R. 5661 are incorporated, by reference into H.R. 4577, the Consolidated Appropriations Act 2001. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1362/
Medicare: Beneficiary Cost-Sharing Under Prescription Drug Legislation
This report provides an analysis of how the cost-sharing and premium provisions under the Prescription Drug and Medicare Improvement Act of 2003 (S. 1) and the Medicare Prescription Drug and Modernization Act of 2003 (H bill would affect the amount that a beneficiary would pay annually for prescription drugs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3698/
Medicare: Beneficiary Cost-Sharing Under Proposed Prescription Drug Benefits
This report examines these proposals as well as the “Medicare Rx Drug Benefit and Discount Act of 2003,” which was introduced by Representative Charles Rangel, the ranking member of the House Ways and Means Committee. Specifically, this report provides background on how the cost-sharing and premium provisions under each bill would affect the amount that a beneficiary pays annually for prescription drugs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3699/
Military Technicians: The Issue of Mandatory Retirement for Non-Dual-Status Technicians
This report describes the mandatory retirement provisions for certain “non-dual-status” military technicians contained in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (P.L. 106-65), discusses the stated rationale behind the policy, and quantifies the impact it will likely have on individual technicians. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1049/
Medicaid Reimbursement Policy
This report begins with a summary of basic federal requirements applicable to payments for all services and an overview of major developments in federal Medicaid reimbursement policy over the last 20 years. This overview provides a historical context for current policies and highlights some issues that have been perennial concerns for federal and state policymakers. The next four sections of the report provide a detailed discussion of Medicaid reimbursement for four basic categories of services or providers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821969/
Concurrent Receipt: Background and Issues for Congress
"Concurrent Receipt" refers to the simultaneous receipt of two types of monetary benefits: military retired pay and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability compensation. This report addresses the two primary components of the concurrent receipt program: Combat-Related Special Compensation (CRSC) and Concurrent Retirement and Disability Payments (CRDP). It reviews the possible legislative expansion of the program to additional populations and provide several potential options for Congress to consider. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31338/
A CRS Review of 10 States: Home and Community-Based Services — States Seek to Change the Face of Long-Term Care: Indiana
Many states have devoted significant efforts to respond to the desire for home and community-based care for persons with disabilities and their families. Nevertheless, financing of nursing home care, chiefly by Medicaid, still dominates most states’ spending for long-term care today. To assist Congress in understanding issues that states face in providing long-term care services, the Congressional Research Service (CRS) undertook a study of 10 states in 2002. This report, one in a series of 10 state reports, presents background and analysis about long-term care in Indiana. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7715/
Retirement Savings and Household Wealth in 2007
This report discusses various issues that impact the retirement income of Americans. About half of all workers in the United States participate in an employer-sponsored retirement plan of some kind, a proportion that has remained relatively stable over the past thirty years. Because the majority of assets held in retirement accounts are invested in stocks, trends in stock prices have a significant impact on households' retirement account balances. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700850/
End-of-Life Care: Services, Costs, Ethics, and Quality of Care
This report provides information on various aspects of end-of-life care: (1) demographic and historical changes affecting death and dying in the United States (2) the definitions of end-of-life, palliative, and hospice care (3) costs associated with end-of-life care (4) end-of-life care laws and ethics (5) quality of care at the end of life and (6) policy issues that would modify or expand the federal government's role in addressing end-of-life care. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743362/
Medicare Prescription Drug and Reform Legislation
This report describes the major features of S. 1, as ordered reported, and the measure to be considered by the House Ways and Means Committee, H.R. 2473, as ordered reported. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3701/
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