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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Country: Iraq
 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses Iraq's political system, which is increasingly characterized by peaceful competition and formation of cross-sectarian alliances. However, ethnic and sectarian political and sometimes violent infighting continues, often involving the questionable use of key levers of power and legal institutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Date: August 22, 2013
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the state of Iraqi politics, governance, and human rights. Topics include the worsening relations between local Sunni and Shiite populations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Date: February 5, 2014
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the state of Iraqi politics, governance, and human rights, including the worsening relations between local Sunni and Shiite populations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

Date: January 6, 2014
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the state of Iraqi politics, governance, and human rights, including the worsening relations between local Sunni and Shiite populations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iraq’s Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief

Iraq’s Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief

Date: March 29, 2011
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report discusses the Iraqi debt problem in three parts: [1] overview of the Iraq debt situation following the ouster of the Saddam regime; [2] subsequent debt relief negotiations and their resolution; [3] possible implications for future debt relief cases that arise from Iraq's experience. The implications are: a willingness by the international community to grant a stay on the enforcement of creditor rights; an increased flexibility in Paris Club debt relief decisions; and an unwillingness by successor regimes to claim that their debt is odious and repudiate it.
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Islam: Sunnis and Shiites

Islam: Sunnis and Shiites

Date: November 9, 2010
Creator: Blanchard, Christopher M.
Description: The majority of the world's Muslim population follows the Sunni branch of Islam, and approximately 10%-15% of all Muslims follow the Shiite (Shi'ite, Shi'a, Shia) branch. Shiite populations constitute a majority in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, and Azerbaijan. Sunnis and Shiites share most basic religious tenets. However, their differences sometimes have been the basis for religious intolerance, political infighting, and sectarian violence. This report includes a historical background of the Sunni-Shiite split and discusses the differences in religious beliefs and practices between and within each Islamic sect as well as their similarities. The report also relates Sunni and Shiite religious beliefs to discussions of terrorism and sectarian violence that may be of interest to Congress.
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The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction with Arab leaders in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. However, an overall reduction in violence in Iraq, coupled with continued U.S. political influence over the Kurds, is likely to prevent a destabilizing escalation of the Iraqi Kurd-Arab disputes. Also see CRS Report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by Kenneth Katzman.
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Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: January 18, 2011
Creator: Feickert, Andrew
Description: This report discusses the background and present status of Congress' involvement in the MRAP program. Topics include the deployment of MRAPs, their efficacy at reducing casualties, and possible issues of unused vehicles and redundancy.
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Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: March 29, 2011
Creator: Feickert, Andrew
Description: This report covers the 2007 Department of Defense (DOD) major procurement initiative to replace most up-armored High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) with Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) vehicles. It looks at the cost and subsequent budgets of this initiative. Among potential issues for congressional consideration are the status of older, unused MRAPS in Afghanistan that are reportedly not being used because of their size and weight; possible redundancies with the MRAP, M-ATV, and the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) programs; and actual Marine M-ATV requirements.
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Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: September 28, 2010
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Navy for several years has carried out a variety of irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) activities, and has taken some steps in recent years to strengthen its ability to conduct such activities. Among the most readily visible of the Navy's current IW operations are those being carried out by Navy sailors serving ashore in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including the definition of Navy IW activities, specific Navy IW budget priorities, and how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets.
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