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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2012
 Month: August
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
501(c)(3) Organizations: What Qualifies as "Educational"?

501(c)(3) Organizations: What Qualifies as "Educational"?

Date: August 21, 2012
Creator: Lunder, Erika K.
Description: Report that discusses the legal definition of the term "educational," as well as the constitutional implications of that definition.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
501(c)(4)s and the Gift Tax: Legal Analysis

501(c)(4)s and the Gift Tax: Legal Analysis

Date: August 10, 2012
Creator: Luckey, John R. & Lunder, Erika K.
Description: This report discusses whether substantial donations to tax-exempt 501(c)(4) organizations are subject to the federal gift tax.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2012 Farm Bill: A Comparison of SenatePassed S. 3240 and the House Agriculture Committee’s H.R. 6083 with Current Law

The 2012 Farm Bill: A Comparison of SenatePassed S. 3240 and the House Agriculture Committee’s H.R. 6083 with Current Law

Date: August 21, 2012
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: August 17, 2012
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, focusing particularly on the influence of the Taliban and other militant groups and on the leadership of Afghan President Hamid Karzai. This report also discusses the U.S.-Afghanistan relationship, in both the short and long term, and U.S. efforts under the Obama Administration to provide military, reconstructive, and stabilization aid.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA’s 2012 Proposed Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Air Quality: EPA’s 2012 Proposed Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard

Date: August 21, 2012
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Armed Conflict in Syria: U.S. and International Response

Armed Conflict in Syria: U.S. and International Response

Date: August 21, 2012
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M. & Blanchard, Christopher M.
Description: This report looks at the recent conflict in Syria, particularly casualty estimates and an assessment of possible future scenarios. A large part of the report looks at U.S. policy towards Syria, including how Congress will handle humanitarian dilemmas, security of Syrian Weapons of Mass Destruction, and how the country is open to opportunities for terrorism recruitment. It also looks at key developments that have occurred during the conflict, including support of the Asad government, political dynamics, and minority communities. The report ends with a look at the Syrian economy and current/possible sanctions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Armed Conflict in Syria: U.S. and International Response

Armed Conflict in Syria: U.S. and International Response

Date: August 20, 2012
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Vladivostok, Russia: A Preview

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Vladivostok, Russia: A Preview

Date: August 16, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: Russia will host the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation's (APEC) week-long series of senior-level meetings in Vladivostok on September 2-9, 2012. The main event for the week will be the 20th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting to be held September 8-9, 2012. This report looks at the main points of this meeting as they relate to the U.S.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Aviation and the European Union’s Emission Trading Scheme

Aviation and the European Union’s Emission Trading Scheme

Date: August 2, 2012
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: August 13, 2012
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Brief Overview of Actions Taken by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) in Its First Year

A Brief Overview of Actions Taken by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) in Its First Year

Date: August 29, 2012
Creator: Hoskins, Sean M.
Description: Report that looks at actions taken by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) during its first year. The CFPB exists to implement and enforce federal consumer financial laws, ensure consumer access to financial products and services, and ensure that the markets for consumer financial services and products are fair, transparent, and competitive.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs

Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs

Date: August 1, 2012
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Budget Control Act of 2011: Budgetary Effects of Proposals to Replace the FY2013 Sequester

The Budget Control Act of 2011: Budgetary Effects of Proposals to Replace the FY2013 Sequester

Date: August 24, 2012
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.
Description: Report that provides information on the levels of deficit reduction if the Budget Control Act's (BCA) automatic cuts are implemented as under current law and contrasts that with the alternative proposals offered by some Members of Congress and President Obama. It also discusses specific determinations made by the Office of Management and Budget regarding the exempt/non-exempt status of certain programs, as well as a discussion of information to be disclosed regarding the FY2013 BCA sequester impact.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budget "Sequestration" and Selected Program Exemptions and Special Rules

Budget "Sequestration" and Selected Program Exemptions and Special Rules

Date: August 9, 2012
Creator: Spar, Karen
Description: This report looks at the history and current status of sequestration at it relates to Congress, including how it is enacted and special rules that can apply. "Sequestration" is a process of automatic, largely across-the-board spending reductions under which budgetary resources are permanently canceled to enforce certain budget policy goals.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: August 1, 2012
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report discusses the diminishment of Arctic sea ice, the ensuing increase in human activities in the Arctic, and concerns about the region's future. It provides overviews of: Arctic sovereignty claims; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation, competition, or conflict.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Custody and Support: Frequently Asked Questions

Child Custody and Support: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: August 17, 2012
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Child Support Enforcement: Tribal Programs

Child Support Enforcement: Tribal Programs

Date: August 3, 2012
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chinese Tire Imports: Section 421 Safeguards and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Chinese Tire Imports: Section 421 Safeguards and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Date: August 24, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report discusses World Trade Organization (WTO) safeguards provisions contained in Article XIX of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Agreement on Safeguards; the WTO China-specific safeguard and how it differs from preexisting WTO provisions; authorities and procedures set out in Section 421 of the Trade Act of 1974; the International Trade Commission (ITC) determination and the President's decision to provide relief in the 2009 China tires case; and China's WTO case against the U.S. tire safeguard.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Community Services Block Grants (CSBG): Background and Funding

Community Services Block Grants (CSBG): Background and Funding

Date: August 9, 2012
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

Date: August 3, 2012
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congress's Contempt Power and the Enforcement of Congressional Subpoenas: A Sketch

Congress's Contempt Power and the Enforcement of Congressional Subpoenas: A Sketch

Date: August 14, 2012
Creator: Garvey, Todd & Dolan, Alissa M.
Description: This report examines the source of Congress's contempt power, analyzes the procedures associated with inherent contempt, criminal contempt, and the civil enforcement of subpoenas, and discusses the obstacles that face Congress in enforcing a contempt action against an executive branch official.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Congress's Contempt Power and the Enforcement of Congressional Subpoenas: Law, History, Practice, and Procedure

Congress's Contempt Power and the Enforcement of Congressional Subpoenas: Law, History, Practice, and Procedure

Date: August 17, 2012
Creator: Garvey, Todd
Description: This report examines the source of the contempt power, reviews the historical development of the early case law, outlines the statutory and common law basis for Congress's contempt power, and analyzes the procedures associated with inherent contempt, criminal contempt, and the civil enforcement of subpoenas. The report also includes a detailed discussion of two recent information-access disputes that led to the approval of contempt citations in the House against then-White House Chief of Staff Joshua Bolten and former White House Counsel Harriet Miers, as well as Attorney General Eric Holder. Finally, the report discusses both non-constitutional and constitutionally-based limitations on the contempt power.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Continuing Resolutions: Overview of Components and Recent Practices

Continuing Resolutions: Overview of Components and Recent Practices

Date: August 6, 2012
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2004-2011

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 2004-2011

Date: August 24, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Description: This report provides Congress with official, unclassified, background data from U.S. government sources on transfers of conventional arms to developing nations by major suppliers for the period 2004 through 2011. All agreement and delivery data in this report for the United States are government-to-government Foreign Military Sales (FMS) transactions. Similar data are provided on worldwide conventional arms transfers by all suppliers, but the principal focus is the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers to nations in the developing world.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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