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 Country: United States
 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2011
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
International Monetary Fund: Background and Issues for Congress

International Monetary Fund: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: September 19, 2011
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report evaluates the purpose, membership, financing, and focus of the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) activities. It also discusses the role of Congress in shaping U.S. policy at the IMF and concludes by addressing key issues, both legislative and oversight-related, that Congress may wish to consider, including: the role of the IMF as a lender of last resort; the adequacy of IMF resources; and the effectiveness of IMF surveillance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Date: February 9, 2011
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank), an independent federal government agency, is the official export credit agency of the United States. It helps finance American exports of manufactured goods and services, with the objective of contributing to the employment of U.S. workers, primarily in circumstances when alternative financing is not available. Ex-Im Bank also may assist U.S. exporters to meet foreign, officially sponsored, export credit competition. Ex-Im Bank's main programs are direct loans, loan guarantees, working capital guarantees, and export credit insurance. Ex-Im Bank transactions are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. The Bank operates under a renewable charter, the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, which requires that all of the Bank's financing have a reasonable assurance of repayment and directs the Bank to supplement, and to not compete with, private capital.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Standard & Poor's Downgrade of U.S. Government Long-Term Debt

Standard & Poor's Downgrade of U.S. Government Long-Term Debt

Date: August 9, 2011
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: This report discusses the lowering of the U.S. government debt credit rating by Standard & Poor's (S&P) on August 5, 2011. It discusses the reasons behind the lowered credit rating and implications for the U.S. economy, other debt markets, and banking regulations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress

Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress

Date: June 23, 2011
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: This report provides background information and potential issues and options for Congress relating to the reauthorization of Ex-Im Bank. The scope of this report is limited to Ex-Im Bank reauthorization issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Date: March 14, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report analyzes how the United States makes policy towards the multilateral development banks (MDBs) and identifies ways by which Congress can shape U.S. policy and influence the activities of the banks themselves.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Depreciating Dollar: Economic Effects and Policy Response

The Depreciating Dollar: Economic Effects and Policy Response

Date: April 15, 2011
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Description: This report discusses the trend of depreciation of the dollar since 2002. This raises concern among some in Congress and the public that the dollar's decline is a symptom of broader economic problems, such as a weak economic recovery, rising public debt, and a diminished standing in the global economy. However, a falling currency is not always a problem, but possibly an element of economic adjustments that are, on balance, beneficial to the economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Regulation of Debit Interchange Fees

Regulation of Debit Interchange Fees

Date: July 12, 2011
Creator: Getter, Darryl E.
Description: This report provides a description of the debit payments process and network pricing, as well as an overview of the effects of the Durbin Amendement implemented by the Federal Reserve which includes a cap on the interchange fee for large issuers. In particular, the Durbin Amendment is discussed in light of comments by Federal Reserve Board Chairman Ben Bernanke.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: January 28, 2011
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Treasury Securities and the U.S. Sovereign Credit Default Swap Market

Treasury Securities and the U.S. Sovereign Credit Default Swap Market

Date: July 25, 2011
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Description: This report explains how the sovereign credit default swap (CDS) market works and how such CDS price trends may illuminate fiscal stresses facing sovereign governments. Although CDS prices may be imperfect measures of the federal government's fiscal condition, some investors may try to glean information from those price trends. CDS prices have been playing an important role in the European government debt markets and could potentially affect U.S debt markets in the future. European policymakers have debated certain restrictions on types of sovereign CDS trading, and such calls for reform may be of interest to U.S. lawmakers.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

Date: August 3, 2011
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Description: This report provides an overview of the issues and options that have been raised during prior consideration of proposals for an amendment to the constitution regarding the balancing of the U.S. government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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