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 Country: United States
 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The "8(a) Program" for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues

The "8(a) Program" for Small Businesses Owned and Controlled by the Socially and Economically Disadvantaged: Legal Requirements and Issues

Date: October 12, 2012
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Luckey, John R.
Description: This report provides a brief history of the 8(a) Program, summarizes key requirements, and discusses legal challenges alleging that the program's presumption that members of certain racial and ethnic groups are socially disadvantaged violates the constitutional guarantee of equal protection.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
501(c)(3) Organizations: What Qualifies as "Educational"?

501(c)(3) Organizations: What Qualifies as "Educational"?

Date: August 21, 2012
Creator: Lunder, Erika K.
Description: Report that discusses the legal definition of the term "educational," as well as the constitutional implications of that definition.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
501(c)(4)s and Campaign Activity: Analysis Under Tax and Campaign Finance Laws

501(c)(4)s and Campaign Activity: Analysis Under Tax and Campaign Finance Laws

Date: May 17, 2013
Creator: Lunder, Erika K. & Whitaker, L. P.
Description: This report discusses 501(c)(4) social welfare organizations, including the requirements necessary to maintain 501(c)(4) status and the requirements for annual reporting to the Internal Revenue Service and Federal Election Commission.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
501(c)(4)s and the Gift Tax: Legal Analysis

501(c)(4)s and the Gift Tax: Legal Analysis

Date: August 10, 2012
Creator: Luckey, John R. & Lunder, Erika K.
Description: This report discusses whether substantial donations to tax-exempt 501(c)(4) organizations are subject to the federal gift tax.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
S. 1961 and H.R. 4024: Legislative Responses to a Chemical Storage Facility Spill

S. 1961 and H.R. 4024: Legislative Responses to a Chemical Storage Facility Spill

Date: March 26, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia & Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report describes and analyzes the Chemical Safety and Preparedness Act and H.R. 4024, the Ensuring Access to Clean Water Act of 2014.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2001 and 2003 Bush Tax Cuts and Deficit Reduction

The 2001 and 2003 Bush Tax Cuts and Deficit Reduction

Date: July 18, 2012
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L.
Description: This report uses the context of the current and long-term economic environment to examine the tax cuts implemented by the George W. Bush Administration, including the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 and the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force: Issues Concerning Its Continued Application

2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force: Issues Concerning Its Continued Application

Date: April 14, 2015
Creator: Weed, Matthew C.
Description: This report discusses the Congress-enacted legislation (2001 AUMF; P.L. 107-40; 50 U.S.C. ยง1541) to authorize the use of military force against those who perpetrated or provided support for the attacks on September 11, 2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Designating Nonattainment Areas

2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Designating Nonattainment Areas

Date: October 25, 2012
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report focuses primarily on the NAAQS implementation process for designating geographical nonattainment areas with respect to the tightening of the PM2.5 standards under the 2006 particulates NAAQS, including comparisons with the final designations under the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. Also included is a brief overview of states' subsequent obligations for developing and submitting implementation plans (SIPs) for attaining or maintaining compliance with the NAAQS.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2007-2009 Recession: Similarities to and Differences from the Past

The 2007-2009 Recession: Similarities to and Differences from the Past

Date: October 6, 2010
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: According to the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), the U.S. economy was in a recession for 18 months from December 2007 to June 2009. It was the longest and deepest recession of the post-World War II era. This report provides information on the patterns found across past recessions since World War II to gauge whether and how this recession might be different.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2010 Decennial Census: Background and Issues

The 2010 Decennial Census: Background and Issues

Date: May 24, 2010
Creator: Williams, Jennifer D.
Description: The U.S. Constitution--Article 1, Section 2, clause 3, as modified by Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment--requires a population census every 10 years, to serve as the basis for reapportioning seats in the House of Representatives. Decennial census data also are used for within-state redistricting and in certain formulas that determine the annual distribution of more than $400 billion dollars in federal and state funds. This report discusses the major innovations that were planned for the 2010 census, problems encountered with the attempt to automate certain census field operations, the persistent differential census undercount of less advantaged groups in the population, and efforts to ensure an equitable census.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under the Oil Pollution Act

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under the Oil Pollution Act

Date: July 24, 2013
Creator: Vann, Adam & Meltz, Robert
Description: Report that examines the Natural Resources Damage Assessment (NRDA) process under the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) in the context of the Deepwater Horizon spill.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
2010 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference: Key Issues and Implications

2010 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference: Key Issues and Implications

Date: May 3, 2010
Creator: Kerr, Paul K.; Nikitin, Mary Beth; Woolf, Amy F. & Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The report includes a short summary of the provisions and goals of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and a brief history of past review conferences. It also discusses the key issues that the participants are likely to address during the 2010 conference.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2010 Oil Spill: Criminal Liability Under Wildlife Laws

The 2010 Oil Spill: Criminal Liability Under Wildlife Laws

Date: June 28, 2010
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: In April 2010 an explosion occurred on an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico, reportedly killing 11 people, and, according to federal experts, causing the worst oil spill in U.S. history. Millions of barrels of oil are believed to have leaked into the Gulf of Mexico. As the oil spreads, the implications for harm to wildlife grow. The United States has many laws that protect wildlife from harm. This report discusses three: the Endangered Species Act, the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2010 Oil Spill: MMS/BOEMRE and NEPA

The 2010 Oil Spill: MMS/BOEMRE and NEPA

Date: August 19, 2010
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report reviews the environmental procedures required following the explosion of an oil well on a tract leased by BP from the federal government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2010 Oil Spill: MMS/BOEMRE and NEPA

The 2010 Oil Spill: MMS/BOEMRE and NEPA

Date: March 2, 2011
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report reviews the environmental procedures required following the explosion of an oil well on a tract leased by BP from the federal government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2010 Oil Spill: Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under the Oil Pollution Act

The 2010 Oil Spill: Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under the Oil Pollution Act

Date: September 8, 2010
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill leaked an estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico, damaging the waters, shores, and marshes, and the fish and wildlife that live there. When resources in the public trust are harmed by contamination, federal, state, foreign, and tribal governments may seek compensation for damage to natural resources under certain laws. This is done in two steps: first, by assessing the harm; then, by determining how and what restoration will take place. Compensation for natural resource damage is intended to restore the natural resources to their condition before the damage and to compensate the public for the lost use of those resources. This report discusses legislation that provides a framework for assessing and mitigating the damage caused by such spills.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2010 Oil Spill: The Minerals Management Service (MMS) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

The 2010 Oil Spill: The Minerals Management Service (MMS) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

Date: June 4, 2010
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report will review environmental procedures after an exploratory oil well in the Gulf of Mexico exploded, killing 11 people and causing an oil spill.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
2012-2013 Presidential Election Period: National Security Considerations and Options

2012-2013 Presidential Election Period: National Security Considerations and Options

Date: October 5, 2012
Creator: Rollins, John
Description: This report discusses historical national security-related presidential transition activities, provides a representative sampling of national security issues a new Administration may encounter, and offers considerations and options relevant to each of the five phases of the presidential election period. Each phase has distinct challenges and opportunities for the incoming Administration, the outgoing Administration, and Congress. This report is intended to provide a framework for national security considerations during the current election period and will be updated to reflect the election outcome.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2013 Cybersecurity Executive Order: Overview and Considerations for Congress

The 2013 Cybersecurity Executive Order: Overview and Considerations for Congress

Date: November 8, 2013
Creator: Fischer, Eric A.; Liu, Edward C.; Rollins, John W. & Theohary, Catherine A.
Description: This report provides background information regarding the threats and consequences of cybersecurity. The federal legislative framework for cybersecurity is complex, with more than 50 statutes addressing various aspects of it either directly or indirectly.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2013 Cybersecurity Executive Order: Overview and Considerations for Congress

The 2013 Cybersecurity Executive Order: Overview and Considerations for Congress

Date: March 1, 2013
Creator: Fischer, Eric A.; Liu, Edward C.; Rollins, John W. & Theohary, Catherine A.
Description: This report provides background information regarding the threats and consequences of cybersecurity. The federal legislative framework for cybersecurity is complex, with more than 50 statutes addressing various aspects of it either directly or indirectly.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2013 Cybersecurity Executive Order: Overview and Considerations for Congress

The 2013 Cybersecurity Executive Order: Overview and Considerations for Congress

Date: December 15, 2014
Creator: Fischer, Eric A.; Liu, Edward C.; Rollins, John W. & Theohary, Catherine A.
Description: The federal role in cybersecurity has been a topic of discussion and debate for over a decade. Despite significant legislative efforts in the 112th Congress on bills designed to improve the cybersecurity of U.S. critical infrastructure (CI), no legislation on that issue was enacted in that Congress. This report discusses the ramifications of Executive Order 13636, which issued in February 2013 was an attempt to enhance security and resiliency of CI through voluntary, collaborative efforts involving federal agencies and owners and operators of privately owned CI, as well as use of existing federal regulatory authorities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2013 Farm Bill: A Comparison of the Senate-Passed Bill (S. 954) and House- Reported Bill (H.R. 1947) with Current Law

The 2013 Farm Bill: A Comparison of the Senate-Passed Bill (S. 954) and House- Reported Bill (H.R. 1947) with Current Law

Date: June 14, 2013
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.
Description: Report that provides a side-by-side comparison of every provision in the House Agriculture Committee-reported and Senate-passed farm bills with each other and with current law or policy, as amended and extended by the fiscal cliff bill.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
2013 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Designating Nonattainment Areas

2013 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Designating Nonattainment Areas

Date: December 23, 2015
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report focuses primarily on the NAAQS implementation process for designating geographical nonattainment areas with respect to the tightening of the PM2.5 annual standard under the 2013 particulates NAAQS.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2014 Ebola Outbreak: International and U.S. Responses

The 2014 Ebola Outbreak: International and U.S. Responses

Date: August 26, 2014
Creator: Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji
Description: This report discusses the Ebola virus disease (Ebola or EVD), which is a severe, often fatal disease that was first detected near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1976.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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