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 Resource Type: Report
 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2012
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
International Trade: Rules of Origin

International Trade: Rules of Origin

Date: January 5, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Martin, Michael F.
Description: This report deals with Rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, we describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, we discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, we conclude with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process.
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Trade Primer: Qs and As on Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy

Trade Primer: Qs and As on Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy

Date: April 16, 2012
Creator: Hornbeck, J. F.
Description: The 112th Congress has a full legislative and oversight agenda on international trade. The agenda so far has included approval of legislation to implement free trade agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea, and may take up enhanced enforcement of U.S. trade agreements, as well as Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) status, oversight of the World Trade Organization's Doha Round, and trade relations with China. This report provides information and context for many of these topics. It is divided into four sections in a question-and-answer format: trade concepts; U.S. trade performance; formulation of U.S. trade policy; and trade and investment issues. Additional suggested readings are provided in an appendix.
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Trade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress

Trade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: May 31, 2012
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: On January 13, 2012, President Obama asked Congress for authority to reorganize and consolidate into one department the business- and trade-related functions of six federal entities. U.S. policymakers' interest in the organizational structure of U.S. government trade functions has grown in recent years, stimulated by congressional and federal efforts to promote U.S. exports and employment, including through the National Export Initiative (NEI). Interest also has been stimulated by national debates on reducing federal spending and the size of the U.S. government. This report looks at the policy debate and role of Congress in such a move.
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Trade Law: An Introduction to Selected International Agreements and U.S. Laws

Trade Law: An Introduction to Selected International Agreements and U.S. Laws

Date: April 3, 2012
Creator: Barbour, Emily C.
Description: This report is an introductory overview of the legal framework governing trade-related measures. The agreements and laws selected for discussion are those most commonly implicated by U.S. trade interests, but there are U.S. trade laws and obligations beyond those reviewed in this report.
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Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling

Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling

Date: July 3, 2012
Creator: Jurenas, Remy & Greene, Joel L.
Description: This report covers the dispute between the U.S with its neighbors Canada and Mexico, who say that the recent country-of-origin labeling (COOL) system implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is unfair and does not meet its original objectives. This dispute was brought before the WTO dispute panel and found to be valid. The report ends with a discussion of options for the U.S. in regards to modifying COOL to follow WTO rulings.
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International Trade: Rules of Origin

International Trade: Rules of Origin

Date: January 5, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Martin, Michael F.
Description: This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, we describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, we discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, we conclude with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process.
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Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

Date: June 18, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report looks at how free trade areas (FTAs) affect U.S. trade in regards to trade policy, specifically tariffs. It looks closely at the Bush Administration's Trade Promotion Policy, and pending FTAs leftover from this administration. Additionally, it looks at the Obama Administration's work in the prospective Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP).
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The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress

The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress

Date: September 5, 2012
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.; Cooper, William H.; Jurenas, Remy & Williams, Brock R.
Description: Report that examines the issues related to the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the state and substance of the negotiations (to the degree that the information is publicly available), the specific areas under negotiation, the policy and economic contexts in which the TPP would fit, and the issues for Congress that the TPP presents.
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The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress

The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress

Date: November 21, 2012
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.; Cooper, William H.; Jurenas, Remy & Williams, Brock R.
Description: Report that discusses the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. Topics include similar trade partnerships, the importance of Asia to U.S. trade and security interests, and U.S. participation in the TPP.
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Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Countries: Comparative Trade and Economic Analysis

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Countries: Comparative Trade and Economic Analysis

Date: February 8, 2012
Creator: Williams, Brock R.
Description: The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a proposed regional free trade agreement (FTA) currently under negotiation between Australia, Brunei, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States, and Vietnam. The negotiating partners have expressed an interest in allowing this proposed “living agreement” to cover new trade topics and to include new members that are willing to adopt the proposed agreement's high standards. This report provides a comparative economic analysis of the TPP countries and their economic relations with the United States. It suggests that the TPP negotiating partners encompass great diversity in population, economic development, and trade and investment patterns with the United States. This economic diversity and inclusion of fast-growing emerging markets presents both opportunities and challenges for the United States in achieving a comprehensive and high standard regional FTA among TPP countries.
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Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Countries: Comparative Trade and Economic Analysis

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Countries: Comparative Trade and Economic Analysis

Date: May 30, 2012
Creator: Williams, Brock R.
Description: The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a proposed regional free trade agreement (FTA) currently under negotiation between Australia, Brunei, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States, and Vietnam. Congressional involvement includes consultations with U.S. negotiators on and oversight of the details of the negotiations, and eventual consideration of legislation to implement the final trade agreement. This report provides a comparative economic analysis of the TPP countries and their economic relations with the United States.
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The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative

The U.S. Export Control System and the President's Reform Initiative

Date: May 18, 2012
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F. & Kerr, Paul K.
Description: The 112th Congress may consider reforms of the U.S. export control system. The balance between national security and export competitiveness has made the subject of export controls controversial for decades. The U.S. export control system is diffused among several different licensing and enforcement agencies. This report not only discussed the background of such issues, but also the differences between the Obama Administration and Congress' approaches to export legislation reform.
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The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

Date: July 26, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions.
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The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

Date: June 13, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions.
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The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress

Date: June 15, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: This report gives an analysis of the unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status, or in U.S. statutory parlance, normal trade relations (NTR) status, which is a fundamental principle of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This conflicts with the U.S. laws under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 that limits trade status with several nations undergoing accession into the WTO. On June 12, 2012, Sen. Max Baucus introduced a bill with bipartisan co-sponsorship to authorize PNTR for Russia. The report includes information about MFN status and the WTO, the Jackson-Vanik Amendment restricting trade, the case of China, and prospective WTO accessions.
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The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues

The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Background and Issues

Date: November 9, 2012
Creator: Villarreal, M. Angeles
Description: This report discusses the proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement (CFTA) signed November 22, 2006, which has not yet been approved by Congress. It includes an overview of the proposed CFTA and U.S.-Colombia trade, background on Colombia, issues for Congress to consider, Colombia's plan to improve labor rights, and the actions that Colombia has already taken to improve violence, labor, and human rights within the country.
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The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Vladivostok, Russia: A Preview

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Vladivostok, Russia: A Preview

Date: August 16, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: Russia will host the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation's (APEC) week-long series of senior-level meetings in Vladivostok on September 2-9, 2012. The main event for the week will be the 20th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting to be held September 8-9, 2012. This report looks at the main points of this meeting as they relate to the U.S.
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U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act

U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act

Date: November 14, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Williams, Brock R.
Description: Report that examines African economic trends and U.S. trade and investment flows with SSA. It discusses the provisions of AGOA and the changes that have occurred since its enactment. It concludes with a brief discussion of issues for Congress.
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U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act

U.S. Trade and Investment Relations with sub-Saharan Africa and the African Growth and Opportunity Act

Date: June 26, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Williams, Brock R.
Description: This report looks at the pros and cons of recent legislation brought up in the 112th Congress, including the renewal of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and how it will affect trade between the U.S. and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
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Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties

Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties

Date: July 13, 2012
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Description: This report briefly discusses the process used to enact U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization agreements, and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs). In each case these agreements have been approved by majority vote of each house rather than by two-thirds vote of the Senate - that is, they have been treated as congressional-executive agreements rather than as treaties.
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Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate

Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate

Date: April 19, 2012
Creator: Jones, Vivian C.
Description: This report presents, first, a brief history, economic rationale, and legal background leading to the establishment of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). Second, the report presents a discussion of U.S. implementation of the GSP, along with the present debate surrounding its renewal and legislative developments to date. Third, an analysis of the U.S. program's effectiveness and the positions of various stakeholders are presented. Fourth, implications of the expiration of the U.S. program and possible options for Congress are discussed.
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U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 112th Congress

U.S.-Vietnam Economic and Trade Relations: Issues for the 112th Congress

Date: June 11, 2012
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: This report discusses the economic relationship between Vietnam and the U.S. that resumed in the 1990s. Of particular interest to Congress is that both nations may soon be members of the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TTP).
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Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Date: January 30, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the “freedom-of-emigration” requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment. The process for Russia's accession has been completed. As a result, Members of the 112th Congress confront the issue of whether to grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR).
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Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Date: June 15, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: Report that discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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