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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2009
 Month: February
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

Date: February 5, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the current political state of Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government. This report also discusses Afghanistan's relationship with the United States, particularly U.S. efforts to urge President Hamid Karzai to address corruption within the Afghan government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture Biotechnology: Background and Recent Issues

Agriculture Biotechnology: Background and Recent Issues

Date: February 13, 2009
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock & Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the impacts of GE crops on the environment and food safety, and whether GE foods should be specially labeled. Underlying these issues is the question of whether U.S. regulation and oversight of biotechnology—with responsibilities spread primarily among the U.S.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Rural Provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009

Agriculture, Nutrition, and Rural Provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009

Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Monke, Jim; Richardson, Joe; Stubbs, Megan; Cowan, Tadlock; Chite, Ralph M.; Becker, Geoffrey S. et al.
Description: This report analyzes the agriculture, nutrition, and rural provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5). The ARRA boosts government spending on various infrastructure programs and government benefits programs, and offers individual and business tax benefits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ships

Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ships

Date: February 24, 2009
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report provides information regarding pollution from ships and port facilities; discusses some of the measures being implemented and considered by local, state, and federal regulatory agencies; discusses the efforts to ratify and to strengthen Annex VI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL); and describes legislation in Congress to control emissions from ships by amending the Clean Air Act (CAA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ships

Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ships

Date: February 24, 2009
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report provides information regarding pollution from ships and port facilities; discusses some of the measures being implemented and considered by local, state, and federal regulatory agencies; discusses the efforts to ratify and to strengthen Annex VI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL); and describes legislation in Congress to control emissions from ships by amending the Clean Air Act (CAA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Date: February 13, 2009
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Date: February 13, 2009
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles. It includes background information on various kinds of alternative fuels and issues, recend developments, and related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Amtrak: Budget and Reauthorization

Amtrak: Budget and Reauthorization

Date: February 6, 2009
Creator: Frittelli, John & Peterman, David R.
Description: This report discusses the background and funding of Amtrak, which was created by Congress in 1970 to provide intercity passenger railroad service. It operates approximately 44 routes over 22,000 miles of track, 97% of which is owned by freight rail companies. It runs a deficit each year, and requires federal assistance to cover operating losses and capital investment. Without a yearly federal grant to cover operating losses, Amtrak would not survive as presently configured.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Animal Identification: Overview and Issues

Animal Identification: Overview and Issues

Date: February 19, 2009
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: This report provides information about animal identification and proposed solutions. Livestock industry groups, animal health officials, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have been working to establish a nationwide identification (ID) system capable of quickly tracking animals from birth to slaughter, to deal with animal diseases and/or to satisfy foreign market specifications. Some consumer groups are among those who believe ID also would be useful for food safety or retail labeling purposes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements

Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements

Date: February 10, 2009
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.; Nikitin, Mary Beth & Kerr, Paul K.
Description: This report provides an overview of many of the key arms control and nonproliferation agreements and endeavors of the past 40 years. It is divided into three sections: (1) arms control efforts between the United States and the states of the former Soviet Union, covering both formal, bilateral treaties, and the cooperative threat reduction process; (2) multilateral nuclear nonproliferation efforts, covering both formal treaties and less formal accommodations that have been initiated in recent years; and (3) treaties and agreements that address chemical, biological, and conventional weapons.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding

Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding

Date: February 19, 2009
Creator: Kruger, Lennard G.
Description: This report discusses the Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program, also known as fire grants of the FIRE Act grant program. The program provides federal grants directly to local fire departments and unaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to help address a variety of equipment, training, and other firefighter-related and EMS needs. This report also discusses the possible reauthorization of AFG and the related Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Firefighters (SAFER) program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Authoritative Resources on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA)

Authoritative Resources on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA)

Date: February 26, 2009
Creator: Walker Klarman, Kim; Larkins, Fran; Yacker, Heidi G. & Jennings, Julie
Description: This report presents a list of authoritative resources designed to assist in responding to a broad range of questions and concerns about the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), P.L. 111-5. Links to the full text of the act, Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates, White House fact sheets, and federal, state, and municipal government websites are included, along with other useful information.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

Date: February 24, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the current state of Bahrain, which has undergone substantial political reforms since the late 1990s, but which still suffers from tension between the Shiite majority and the Sunni-led government. This report focuses particularly on Bahrain's relationship with Iran and Bahrain's relationship with the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Bayh-Dole Act: Selected Issues in Patent Policy and the Commercialization of Technology

The Bayh-Dole Act: Selected Issues in Patent Policy and the Commercialization of Technology

Date: February 3, 2009
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Description: This report discusses the rationale behind the passage of P.L. 96-517 (Amendments to the Patent and Trademark Act, or the "Bayh-Dole Act") as well as its provisions and information regarding the implementation of the law. Under this 1980 law, as amended, title to inventions made with government support is provided to the contractor if that contractor is a small business, a university, or other non-profit institution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biochar: Examination of an Emerging Concept to Mitigate Climate Change

Biochar: Examination of an Emerging Concept to Mitigate Climate Change

Date: February 3, 2009
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi S.
Description: This report briefly describes biochar, its potential advantages and disadvantages, legislative support, and research and development activities underway in the United States and abroad.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biochar: Examination of an Emerging Concept to Mitigate Climate Change

Biochar: Examination of an Emerging Concept to Mitigate Climate Change

Date: February 3, 2009
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi S.
Description: This report briefly describes biochar, its potential advantages and disadvantages, legislative support, and research and development activities underway in the United States and abroad.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture: Status and Current Issues

Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture: Status and Current Issues

Date: February 11, 2009
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S. & Cowan, Tadlock
Description: This report describes several scientifically emerging animal biotechnologies that are raising a variety of questions concerning risks to humans, animals, and the environment, as well as ethical concerns. The report examines applications of the technologies and discusses major issues that may arise.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
California's Waiver Request Under the Clear Air Act to Control Greenhouse Gases From Motor Vehicles

California's Waiver Request Under the Clear Air Act to Control Greenhouse Gases From Motor Vehicles

Date: February 10, 2009
Creator: McCarthy, James E. & Meltz, Robert
Description: This report reviews the nature of EPA's, California's, and other states' authority to regulate emissions from mobile sources, the applicability of that authority to GHGs, and issues related to the California waiver request.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Capturing CO2 from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Challenges for a Comprehensive Strategy

Capturing CO2 from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Challenges for a Comprehensive Strategy

Date: February 13, 2009
Creator: Parker, Larry; Stine, Deborah D. & Folger, Peter
Description: This report examines the current effort to develop technology that would capture CO2. First, the paper outlines the current status of carbon capture technology. Second, the paper examines the role of government in developing that technology, both in terms of creating a market for carbon capture technology and encouraging development of the technology. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of implications of capture technology for climate change legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Capturing CO2 from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Challenges for a Comprehensive Strategy

Capturing CO2 from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Challenges for a Comprehensive Strategy

Date: February 13, 2009
Creator: Parker, Larry; Stine, Deborah D. & Folger, Peter
Description: This report examines the current effort to develop technology that would capture CO2 (carbon dioxide). It outlines the current status of carbon capture technology; examines the role of government in developing that technology, both in terms of creating a market for carbon capture technology and encouraging development of the technology; and concludes with a discussion of implications of capture technology for climate change legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Carbon Capture and Sequestration

Carbon Capture and Sequestration

Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Folger, Peter
Description: This report covers carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), but not other types of carbon sequestration activities whereby CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored in vegetation, soils, or oceans. Forests and agricultural lands store carbon, and the world's oceans exchange huge amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere through natural processes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Carbon Cycle: Implications for Climate Change and Congress

The Carbon Cycle: Implications for Climate Change and Congress

Date: February 18, 2009
Creator: Folger, Peter
Description: Congress is considering several legislative strategies that would reduce U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases—primarily carbon dioxide (CO2)—and/or increase uptake and storage of CO2 from the atmosphere. Both approaches are viewed by many observers as critical to forestalling global climate change caused, in part, by the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from human activities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Carbon Tax and Greenhouse Gas Control: Options and Considerations for Congress

Carbon Tax and Greenhouse Gas Control: Options and Considerations for Congress

Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L. & Parker, Larry
Description: This report provides an overview of the fundamental choices involved between a cost (tax) and a quantity (cap) control instrument, including a discussion of policy tools that could be employed to bridge the gap between a carbon tax and a cap-and-trade program. It also analyzes the potential advantages and disadvantages of a carbon tax, discusses implementation issues for a carbon tax -- including where to apply the tax, at what level to set the tax, and options for distributing the tax revenues-- and provides conclusions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Central Asia's Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Interests

Central Asia's Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Interests

Date: February 25, 2009
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Description: This report discusses the internal and external security concerns of the Central Asian states. Security concerns faced by the states include mixes of social disorder, crime, corruption, terrorism, ethnic and civil conflict, border tensions, water and transport disputes, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), and trafficking in illegal narcotics and persons.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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