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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2001
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The 0.22 Percent Across-the-Board Cut in FY2001 Appropriations

The 0.22 Percent Across-the-Board Cut in FY2001 Appropriations

Date: May 31, 2001
Creator: Keith, Robert
Description: Report describing changes that affected the government budget for the 2001 fiscal year under the Consolidated Appropriations Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
527 Organizations: Reporting Requirements Imposed on Political Organizations after the Enactment of P.L. 106-230

527 Organizations: Reporting Requirements Imposed on Political Organizations after the Enactment of P.L. 106-230

Date: March 19, 2001
Creator: Morris, Marie B.
Description: On July 1, 2000, President Clinton signed H.R. 4762, P.L. 106-230. The law amended the Internal Revenue Code [IRC] to require political organizations described in IRC § 527 to disclose their political activities, if they were not already required to do so by the Federal Election Campaign Act [FECA]. This report summarizes the three major changes made by the law and some of the major responses to the legislation. First, all 527 organizations which expect to have over $25,000 in gross receipts during a taxable year and which are not required to report to the Federal Election Commission [FEC] are required to register with the IRS within 24 hours of their formation, whether they are involved in state, local, or federal elections. Second, 527 issue advocacy organizations, which previously reported neither to the IRS nor the FEC, are required to file regular disclosure statements with the IRS. Third, all 527 organizations with gross receipts in excess of $25,000 per year are required to file annual reports with the IRS. The registration statements, disclosure forms, and annual reports will be made public. H.R. 527 and S. 527 in the 107th Congress would exempt most state and local 527 organizations from the ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The 2002 Farm Bill: Overview and Status

The 2002 Farm Bill: Overview and Status

Date: September 27, 2001
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview

Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview

Date: January 2, 2001
Creator: Lewis, Karen J. & Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Description: This report offers an overview of the development of abortion law from 1973 to the present. Beginning with a brief discussion of the historical background, the report analyzes the leading Supreme Court decisions over the past twenty-eight years, emphasizing particularly the landmark decisions in Roe and Doe, the Court’s shift in direction in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services and Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, and the Court’s most recent decision on abortion, Stenberg v. Carhart. The Court’s decisions on the constitutionality of restricting public funding for abortion are also discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview

Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview

Date: January 2, 2001
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Abortion: Termination of Early Pregnancy with RU-486 (Mifepristone)

Abortion: Termination of Early Pregnancy with RU-486 (Mifepristone)

Date: February 23, 2001
Creator: Johnson, Judith A.
Description: On September 28, 2000, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the drug mifepristone, also known as RU-486, for the termination of early pregnancy. Because RU-486 is an abortion agent, the process of moving it out of the lab and into mainstream medicine has been fraught with controversy. Since its discovery, the pro-life movement has been adamantly against the use of this drug for abortion. This report discusses the procedure of obtaining and using the drug, as well as the ongoing debate regarding its usage and related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Across-the-Board Tax Cuts: Economic Issues

Across-the-Board Tax Cuts: Economic Issues

Date: September 24, 2001
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Description: This report examines economic issues relating to across-the-board tax cuts, focusing primarily on distributional issues. The report is divided into four sections. The first section provides a general overview of the tax system. The next discusses recent proposals relating to across-the-board tax cuts. The third section discusses methods of evaluating alternative types of across-the-board tax cuts. The final section briefly discusses issues of efficiency, simplicity, and stabilization policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Across-the-Board Tax Cuts: Economic Issues

Across-the-Board Tax Cuts: Economic Issues

Date: March 30, 2001
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.
Description: This report examines economic issues relating to across-the-board tax cuts, focusing primarily on distributional issues. The report is divided into four sections. The first section provides a general overview of the tax system. The next discusses recent proposals relating to across-the-board tax cuts. The third section discusses methods of evaluating alternative types of across-the-board tax cuts. The final section briefly discusses issues of efficiency, simplicity, and stabilization policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Current Issues and U.S. Policy Concerns

Afghanistan: Current Issues and U.S. Policy Concerns

Date: November 15, 2001
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The United States and its allies are helping Afghanistan emerging from more than 22 years of warfare, although substantial risk to Afghan stability remains. Before the U.S. military campaign against the orthodox Islamist Taliban movement began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. The defeat of the Taliban has enabled the United States and its coalition partners to send forces throughout Afghanistan to search for Taliban and Al Qaeda fighters and leaders that remain at large, including Osama bin Laden. As the war against remaining Al Qaeda and Taliban elements winds down, the United States is shifting its military focus toward stabilizing the interim government, including training a new Afghan national army, and supporting the international security force (ISAF) that is helping the new government provide security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Current Issues and U.S. Policy Concerns

Afghanistan: Current Issues and U.S. Policy Concerns

Date: December 12, 2001
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Africa Backgrounder: History, U.S. Policy, Principal Congressional Actions

Africa Backgrounder: History, U.S. Policy, Principal Congressional Actions

Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Copson, Raymond W.
Description: Congressional interest in Africa seems certain to continue, not only because the region is affected by a number of serious problems, some of which could have grave humanitarian consequences, but also because of the potential Africa offers for U.S. trade and investment should these problems ease. Africa's problems and prospects will likely assure continuing constituent interest as well, stimulated in part by the churches, relief organizations, and other non-governmental organizations active on African issues. This report is intended to introduce congressional readers to the region by providing an overview of Africa's history, a summary of U.S. policy toward Africa, and a listing of principal congressional actions affecting the region. The paper concludes with suggestions for further reading and a list of selected Congressional Research Service (CRS) products.
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Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues

Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues

Date: May 2, 2001
Creator: Copson, Raymond W
Description: This report discusses the issue of U.S. economic assistance to sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the importance of continued assistance in light of U.S. national security and also various U.S.-led efforts to promote reform amongst African citizens themselves. U.S. assistance finds its way to Africa through a variety of channels, including the USAID-administered DA program, food aid programs, and indirect aid provided through international financial institutions and the United Nations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues

Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues

Date: September 24, 2001
Creator: Copson, Raymond W
Description: This report discusses the issue of U.S. economic assistance to sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the importance of continued assistance in light of U.S. national security and also various U.S.-led efforts to promote reform amongst African citizens themselves. U.S. assistance finds its way to Africa through a variety of channels, including the USAID-administered DA program, food aid programs, and indirect aid provided through international financial institutions and the United Nations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
African Development Bank and Fund

African Development Bank and Fund

Date: April 18, 2001
Creator: Copson, Raymond W.
Description: The African Development Bank Group, including the Bank itself (AfDB) and its “soft-loan” affiliate, the African Development Fund (AfDF), is a development finance institution based in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. The Bank has 53 African members, as well as 24 non-regional members, including the United States. In the mid-1990s, the Bank faced management problems and difficulties arising from non-performing loans, but reforms launched in 1995 by a new Bank president, Omar Kabbaj, brought new pledges of support from the non-regionals. U.S. contributions to the Fund resumed in FY1998 and to the Bank in FY2000. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs

Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs

Date: May 30, 2001
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E.
Description: This report discusses projected agricultural imports and exports for FY2001, as well as legislation that deals with federal programs in support of agricultural exports and federal aid dedicated to farms and agricultural reform.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Export Subsidies, Export Credits, and the World Trade Organization

Agricultural Export Subsidies, Export Credits, and the World Trade Organization

Date: March 27, 2001
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress

Agricultural Trade Issues in the 107th Congress

Date: May 25, 2001
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E; Jurenas, Remy & Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: The 107th Congress will consider and seek to influence trade issues with implications for the U.S. agricultural sector. Trade in agricultural commodities and food products affects farm income and rural employment, and it also generates economic activity beyond the farm gate. With agricultural export sales accounting for one-quarter of farm income, policymakers view U.S. efforts to develop market opportunities overseas as vital to the sector's financial health. Decisions taken by the Bush Administration, and actions taken by Congress, thus will affect the outlook for agricultural trade.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture: A List of Websites

Agriculture: A List of Websites

Date: February 8, 2001
Creator: Canada, Carol
Description: This list provides a sampling of the rapidly proliferating number of agricultural resources available on the Internet. It is not intended to be exhaustive. It is divided into 24 main categories and 15 subcategories.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture and China's Accession to the World Trade Organization

Agriculture and China's Accession to the World Trade Organization

Date: March 13, 2001
Creator: Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: The prospect of future growth in demand for agricultural products makes China’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) an important issue for the U.S. agricultural sector. Most agricultural interest groups strongly support China’s entry into the WTO, because they think it will increase U.S. agricultural exports and enhance farm income. In the 107th Congress, attention is focused on China’s final WTO accession negotiations where differences over agriculture have become an issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture and Fast Track or Trade Promotion Authority

Agriculture and Fast Track or Trade Promotion Authority

Date: October 11, 2001
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S & Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: New “fast track” (or, trade promotion) authority (TPA) is at issue in the 107th Congress. Such authority could enable the Administration to submit negotiated foreign trade agreements to Congress for consideration under expedited procedures. Efforts to renew this authority, which expired in 1994, have not succeeded since then. Many agricultural and food industry interests are among the export-oriented enterprises that support TPA, arguing that foreign trading partners will not seriously negotiate with an Administration that lacks it. However, some farm groups argue that fast track ultimately will lead to new agreements that could have adverse effects on U.S. producers, at least in some commodity sectors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture and Fast Track or Trade Promotion Authority

Agriculture and Fast Track or Trade Promotion Authority

Date: October 11, 2001
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture and Fast Track Trade Legislation

Agriculture and Fast Track Trade Legislation

Date: March 27, 2001
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S & Hanrahan, Charles E
Description: The 107th Congress is expected to consider new "fast track" (or, Presidential trade promotion) authority, which could enable the Administration to submit trade agreements negotiated with foreign countries to Congress for consideration under expedited procedures. Many agricultural and food industry interests are among the export-oriented enterprises that support fast track authority, arguing that foreign trading partners will not seriously negotiate with an Administration that lacks it. However, some agricultural groups argue that fast track ultimately will lead to new agreements that deliver more benefits to foreign than to U.S. producers, at least in some commodity sectors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture in Afghanistan and Neighboring Asian Countries

Agriculture in Afghanistan and Neighboring Asian Countries

Date: November 16, 2001
Creator: Jurenas, Remy
Description: Agriculture (as measured by share of gross domestic product and employment) is a significant economic sector in seven Central and South Asian countries: Afghanistan, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. All of these countries are net food importers. Some have experienced successive years of drought, which has contributed to noticeable declines in agricultural output and the need to increase commodity imports. The United Nations’ World Food Program reports that both Afghanistan and Tajikistan are currently in need of emergency food assistance to cover sizable food deficits. The food outlook in Afghanistan is made uncertain by ongoing military conflict.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture: Previewing the 2002 Farm Bill

Agriculture: Previewing the 2002 Farm Bill

Date: April 9, 2001
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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