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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2000
 Month: September
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change

527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change

Date: September 7, 2000
Creator: Morris, Marie B.
Description: Virtually all political organizations are "section 527" political organizations, which means that they are tax-exempt. 527 organizations are created to influence the election or defeat of public officials. This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change

527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change

Date: September 7, 2000
Creator: Morris, Marie B.
Description: This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527. For developments after the enactment of P.L. 106-230, please see CRS Report RS20650, 527 Organizations: Reporting Requirements Imposed on Political Organizations after the Enactment of P.L. 106-230.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change

527 Organizations: How the Differences in Tax and Election Laws Permit Certain Organizations to Engage in Issue Advocacy without Public Disclosure and Proposals for Change

Date: September 7, 2000
Creator: Morris, Marie B.
Description: Virtually all political organizations are "section 527" political organizations, which means that they are tax-exempt. 527 organizations are created to influence the election or defeat of public officials. This report compares the tax and election laws relating to political organizations and political committees prior to the enactment of P.L. 106-230 in an attempt to highlight the differences between them, and discusses some of the proposals in the 106th Congress to require additional reporting by organizations engaging in political activities. This report does not address the taxation of other tax-exempt organizations making political expenditures taxable under IRC § 527.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Marketing Assistance Loans and Loan Deficiency Payments

Agricultural Marketing Assistance Loans and Loan Deficiency Payments

Date: September 15, 2000
Creator: Womach, Jasper
Description: Marketing assistance loans for the major crops were designed to facilitate orderly marketing by providing short-term financing so that farmers could pay their bills right after harvest and spread their sales over the entire marketing year. However, the persistence of very low commodity prices transformed the loan program into a major vehicle of farm income support. Marketing loan program benefits (primarily loan deficiency payments, LDPs) to farmers amounted to about $5.9 billion in 1999, and will exceed $6.5 billion in 2000. Such levels of use and high costs have revealed several administrative problems and given rise to several policy issues. Some policy makers have favored broadening the scope and enhancing the benefits of the program to achieve greater farm income support. Anticipated adverse market impacts have discouraged adoption of these proposals to date. A persistent policy issue is the payment limitation on marketing loan gains.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Marketing Assistance Loans and Loan Deficiency Payments

Agricultural Marketing Assistance Loans and Loan Deficiency Payments

Date: September 15, 2000
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: An Overview

Appropriations for FY2001: An Overview

Date: September 22, 2000
Creator: Bley, Mary Frances
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a broad overview of all appropriations activity and a guide to the CRS Appropriation Product Series that provides analytical perspectives on the 13 annual FY2001 appropriations bills.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2001: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies

Date: September 15, 2000
Creator: Knight, Edward
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: Defense

Appropriations for FY2001: Defense

Date: September 26, 2000
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Defense Appropriations Subcommittees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: District of Columbia

Appropriations for FY2001: District of Columbia

Date: September 14, 2000
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia Appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: Energy and Water Development

Appropriations for FY2001: Energy and Water Development

Date: September 19, 2000
Creator: Humphries, Marc & Behrens, Carl E
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Subcommittees on Energy and Water Development Appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs

Appropriations for FY2001: Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs

Date: September 2, 2000
Creator: Nowels, Larry
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Foreign Operations Appropriations Subcommittees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: Interior and Related Agencies

Appropriations for FY2001: Interior and Related Agencies

Date: September 22, 2000
Creator: Greenwood, Alfred R
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: Legislative Branch

Appropriations for FY2001: Legislative Branch

Date: September 11, 2000
Creator: Dwyer, Paul E
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Legislative Branch Appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government

Appropriations for FY2001: Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government

Date: September 21, 2000
Creator: Gressle, Sharon S
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Treasury, Postal Service, and General Government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies

Appropriations for FY2001: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies

Date: September 26, 2000
Creator: Snook, Dennis W & Bourdon, E. Richard
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Subcommittees on VA, HUD and Independent Agencies Appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Aviation Delays

Aviation Delays

Date: September 22, 2000
Creator: Moore, J. Glen
Description: Flight delays and cancellation in the U.S. air transportation system rose to record levels in 2000. The problem costs the airlines an estimated $3 billion annually and causes great inconvenience for shippers and passengers. Billions of federal dollars are being spent to modernize the air traffic control (ATC) system, purchase new equipment and expand airport capacity. But the airlines express little confidence that these efforts will provide near-term relief or be enough in the long-term to accommodate the forecasted growth in air traffic ­ up from about 670 million passengers this year to 1.0 billion forecast by 2010 and 1.5 billion by 2025.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Regulation Under the First Amendment:

Campaign Finance Regulation Under the First Amendment:

Date: September 8, 2000
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige & Jennings, Christopher Alan
Description: This Report first discusses the critical holdings enunciated by the Supreme Court in Buckley, including those: upholding reasonable contribution limits, striking down expenditure limits, upholding disclosure reporting requirements, and upholding the system of voluntary presidential election expenditure limitations linked with public financing. It then examines the Court’s extension of Buckley in fourteen subsequent cases, evaluating them in three regulatory contexts: contribution limits (California Medical Association v. FEC; Citizens Against Rent Control v. Berkeley; Nixon v. Shrink Missouri Government PAC), expenditure limits (First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti; FEC v. Massachusetts Citizens for Life; Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce; FEC v. National Right to Work; Colorado Republican Federal Campaign Committee v. FEC; FEC v. Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee; FEC v. National Conservative Political Action Committee), and disclosure requirements (Buckley v. American Constitutional Law Foundation; Brown v. Socialist Workers ‘74 Campaign Committee; FEC v. Akins; McIntrye v. Ohio Elections Commission).
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The Case of Elian Gonzalez: Legal Basics

The Case of Elian Gonzalez: Legal Basics

Date: September 12, 2000
Creator: unknown
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress

Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress

Date: September 20, 2000
Creator: Bowman, Steven R
Description: The Convention provides the most extensive and intrusive verification regime of any arms control treaty, extending its coverage to not only governmental but also civilian facilities. The Convention also requires export controls and reporting requirements on chemicals that can be used as warfare agents and their precursors. The CWC establishes the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to oversee the Convention's implementation. Chemical Weapons Convention implementing legislation, as S. 610, passed the Senate unanimously on May 23, 1997. This legislation, which was an amendment in the nature of a substitute reported from the Judiciary Committee, provides the statutory authority for domestic compliance with the Convention's provisions. It sets criminal and civil penalties for the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, transfer, possession, or use of chemical weapons.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Economic Conditions

China's Economic Conditions

Date: September 21, 2000
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M
Description: China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Community Development Block Grants: Funding and Other Issues in the 106th Congress

Community Development Block Grants: Funding and Other Issues in the 106th Congress

Date: September 20, 2000
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Description: In this report Congress addresses a number of community development issues, including reauthorization of the CDBG and revision of the CDBG program definitions of entitlement communities and low- and moderate-income households. Congress also will consider legislation appropriating funds for the program for FY2001, including funding for a number of new initiatives proposed by the Clinton Administration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutional Constraints on Congress' Ability to Protect the Environment

Constitutional Constraints on Congress' Ability to Protect the Environment

Date: September 8, 2000
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: Federal protection of the environment must hew to the same constitutional strictures as any other federal actions. In the past decade, however, the Supreme Court has invigorated several of these strictures in ways that present new challenges to congressional drafters of environmental statutes. This report reviews six of these newly emergent constitutional areas, with special attention to their significance for current and future environmental legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices

Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices

Date: September 26, 2000
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Description: This report provides information on the history of continuing resolutions; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 30 years; the various types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when budget authority has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Critical Infrastructures: Background and Early Implementation of PDD-63

Critical Infrastructures: Background and Early Implementation of PDD-63

Date: September 12, 2000
Creator: Moteff, John D
Description: The nation's health, wealth, and security rely on the supply and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, processes and organizations across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures (e.g. electricity, the power plants that generate it, and the electric grid upon which it is distributed or financial capital, the institutions that manage it, and the record- keeping and communications that move it from one institution to another).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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