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 Country: United States
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2000
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
American Inventors Protection Act of 1999

American Inventors Protection Act of 1999

Date: February 28, 2000
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V.
Description: After several years of consideration, on Friday, November 19, 1999, Congress gave final approval to a bill which makes major changes to the patent laws. On this day the Senate passed the American Inventors Protection Act of 1999 as part of the Intellectual Property and Communications Omnibus Reform Act of 1999, attached by reference to the Consolidated Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2000. This report summarizes major provisions of the patent reform bill.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: District of Columbia

Appropriations for FY2001: District of Columbia

Date: September 14, 2000
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia Appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2001: District of Columbia

Appropriations for FY2001: District of Columbia

Date: November 27, 2000
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia Appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Appropriations for FY2004: Energy and Water Development

Appropriations for FY2004: Energy and Water Development

Date: January 30, 2000
Creator: Behrens, Carl & Humphries, Marc
Description: This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
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Causes of Unemployment: A Cross-Country Analysis

Causes of Unemployment: A Cross-Country Analysis

Date: December 12, 2000
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: This report examines data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to explore what differences in microeconomic structures and policies explain the causes of unemployment across various countries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China: The National People’s Congress

China: The National People’s Congress

Date: August 17, 2000
Creator: Wolfe, Samuel
Description: The National People’s Congress (NPC), a unicameral legislature, is the People’s Republic of China (PRC)'s counterpart to the U.S. Congress. In recent years, there has been increasing interaction between the two legislatures. This report briefly considers recent developments in the NPC, describes how the NPC works, and discusses exchanges between the two congresses.
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Comparison of the Bankruptcy Reform Act, H.R. 833, 106th Congress, Passed by the House and the Senate

Comparison of the Bankruptcy Reform Act, H.R. 833, 106th Congress, Passed by the House and the Senate

Date: March 6, 2000
Creator: Jeweler, Robin
Description: This report surveys the legislation’s legislative history. It provides a brief narrative and side-by-side comparison of selected provisions in the House and Senate bills, with an emphasis on consumer bankruptcy.
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The Copyright Doctrine of Fair Use and the Internet: Caselaw

The Copyright Doctrine of Fair Use and the Internet: Caselaw

Date: March 30, 2000
Creator: Weimer, Douglas R.
Description: This report examines the evolving copyright doctrine of fair use within the context of copyrighted works published or placed on the Internet. American courts have been examining the various property rights of copyright owners concurrently with the unauthorized use of these copyrighted materials by Web site operators, Internet consumers, access providers, and other interested parties. This report analyzes the early fair use copyright cases concerning Internet use, as well as the most recent judicial interpretations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
District of Columbia Appropriations Act for FY2001: Comparison of General Provisions of P.L. 106-113, and House and Senate Versions of H.R. 4942

District of Columbia Appropriations Act for FY2001: Comparison of General Provisions of P.L. 106-113, and House and Senate Versions of H.R. 4942

Date: October 3, 2000
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Description: This report discusses the appropriations act for FY2001, proposed budget includes $ 445 million in federal payments and assistance to the District of Columbia.
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Farm Economic Relief: Issues and Options for Congress

Farm Economic Relief: Issues and Options for Congress

Date: December 6, 2000
Creator: Womach, Jasper & Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses issues regarding Agriculture funding, specifically the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform (FAIR) Act (P.L. 104-127), which prescribed farm commodity support policy through 2002.
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Farm Economic Relief: Issues and Options for Congress

Farm Economic Relief: Issues and Options for Congress

Date: August 22, 2000
Creator: Womach, Jasper & Becker, Geoffrey S
Description: This report discusses issues regarding Agriculture funding and subsidies. In response to low prices, natural disasters, and other farm-related problems, Congress has, over 3 successive years, provided a total of about $23 billion in supplemental aid – in addition to funds already programmed through the 1996 farm bill (P.L. 104-127). The most recent aid was attached to a crop insurance reform bill signed into law on June 22, 2000 (P.L. 106-224). This Agriculture Risk Protection Act of 2000 includes $7.113 billion for additional farm income and related assistance, of which $5.5 billion is to be spent in FY2000.
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Federal Grants to State and Local Governments: A Brief History

Federal Grants to State and Local Governments: A Brief History

Date: October 10, 2000
Creator: Canada, Ben
Description: This report discusses the history of the federal grants-in-aid system, which predates the Constitution. he grants-in-aid system assumed its current form when President Franklin D. Roosevelt initiated his New Deal programs. Since Roosevelt, the grants-in-aid system has expanded, especially in the number and dollar amount of categorical grant programs.
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Federal Grants to State and Local Governments: Overview and Characteristics

Federal Grants to State and Local Governments: Overview and Characteristics

Date: September 7, 2000
Creator: Canada, Ben
Description: Each fiscal year, Congress appropriates funds for grants to state and local governments to further national goals and assist sub-national governments. Examples of goals include attaining minimum national standards and improving program effectiveness. The federal government provides grants for numerous substantive purposes, such as crime prevention, community development, and transportation. In 1999, grants-in-aid to state and local governments totaled $270 billion. Grants can be classified by the substantive purposes they address. This report, however, reviews the fundamental characteristics according to which they can also be classified. Examples of grant characteristics include range of eligible activities, objectives, award process, and administrative requirements.
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Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt

Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt

Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses new regulations on livestock grazing on lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management became effective August 21, 1995. Many aspects of the new regulations were challenged in Public Lands Council v. Babbitt. A federal district court upheld many of the regulations, but struck down four of them and enjoined their implementation. At the appellate level, only the new regulation allowing conservation use to the exclusion of livestock grazing for the full term of a permit was held invalid. The Supreme Court has agreed to hear the case and argument has been set for March 1, 2000.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship

Federal R&D, Drug Discovery, and Pricing: Insights from the NIH-University-Industry Relationship

Date: June 19, 2000
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: Interest in methods to provide drugs at lower cost, particularly for the elderly, has rekindled discussion over the role the federal government plays in facilitating the creation of new pharmaceuticals for the marketplace. This report explores the issue of whether or not the substantial federal investment in health-related research and development (R&D) entitles the public to commensurate consideration in prices charged for any resulting drugs. It is intended to provide the reader with an understanding of the rationale for government support of R&D and subsequent efforts to facilitate private sector commercialization of new technologies generated from such work. Concerns surrounding innovation in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology are discussed within the broader context of the federal role in facilitating technological progress.
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The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the House Floor

The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the House Floor

Date: November 1, 2000
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Description: The House of Representatives follows a well established routine on the opening day of a new Congress. The proceedings include election of the Speaker, swearing in its members, election of administrative officers, and adoption of rules of procedure. Also, resolutions assigning its members to committees may be adopted. The House must take these actions at the beginning of each new Congress because it is not a continuing body. Article 1, Section 2 of Constitution sets terms for Members of the House at two years. Thus, the House ends at the conclusion of each two-year Congress and must reconstitute itself at the beginning of a new Congress. This report focuses on the floor activities of the House during its first formal session in a new Congress, and serves as a guide for participating in or watching those proceedings.
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Forest Service Accountability in Administering Its Trust Funds

Forest Service Accountability in Administering Its Trust Funds

Date: March 8, 2000
Creator: Gorte, Ross W.
Description: The USDA Forest Service has numerous permanently appropriated trust funds and special funds that provide substantial funding independent of the annual appropriations process. Critics have alleged abuse of the funds and have sought greater congressional oversight, and the General Accounting Office has testified on the agency’s management of some of these accounts. While the Administration has offered few responses to the criticisms of these funds, it has, in its FY2001 budget request, proposed creating two new trust funds and combining several existing funds into a new fund with expanded purposes. This report provides an overview of the permanently appropriated Forest Service accounts and concerns over their use and proposed alternative structures that could provide greater public and congressional oversight and control over permanently appropriated funds.
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Forest Service FY2001 Budget Issues, Including Proposals for Land Sales and Trust Funds

Forest Service FY2001 Budget Issues, Including Proposals for Land Sales and Trust Funds

Date: March 14, 2000
Creator: Gorte, Ross W.
Description: This report provides a table detailing the requested Forest Service (FS) budget for FY2001 and comparing it FY1999 appropriations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Forest Service Receipt-Sharing Payments: Proposals for Change

Forest Service Receipt-Sharing Payments: Proposals for Change

Date: April 26, 2000
Creator: Gorte, Ross W.
Description: In lieu of property taxes, the Forest Service generally shares 25% of receipts from the sale, lease, rental, or other use of the national forests to the states for use on roads and schools in the counties where the national forests are located. This report discusses concerns about the equity and stability of Forest Service receipt-sharing payments, especially with the decline in timber sales over the past decade, and about the incentives of the current system.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Forest Service Revenue-Sharing Payments: Legislative Issues

Forest Service Revenue-Sharing Payments: Legislative Issues

Date: March 24, 2000
Creator: Gorte, Ross W.
Description: The Forest Service (FS) returns 25% of the revenues from each national forest to the states for use on roads and schools in counties where the forests are located; the Bureau of Land Management shares 50% of its revenues with counties containing the Oregon & California grant lands. This report discusses the legislative concerns that have arisen because declining timber sales have reduced revenues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: A Survey of Scientific Research and Policy Reports

Global Climate Change: A Survey of Scientific Research and Policy Reports

Date: April 13, 2000
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: This report is intended to guide the reader through U.S. global climate change policy from the passage of the National Climate Program Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-367) through the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, where the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was opened for signatures. It offers a summary of scientific research on global climate change and related U.S. policy and identifies what many consider to be important milestones in the international policy debate on global climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: The Role for Energy Efficiency

Global Climate Change: The Role for Energy Efficiency

Date: February 3, 2000
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Description: This report reviews the role of energy efficiency in federal policies to curb CO2 emissions. In particular, it discusses targets for CO2 reductions, projected energy efficiency impacts, strategies for measuring impacts, and legislative proposals that would affect support for energy efficiency programs.
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Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol

Date: March 6, 2000
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: Negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) were completed December 11, 1997, committing the industrialized nations to specified, legally binding reductions in emissions of six "greenhouse gases." This report discusses the major provisions of the Kyoto Protocol.
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Going to Conference in the Senate

Going to Conference in the Senate

Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Bach, Stanley
Description: This report discusses the steps that the Senate must take, and one more step that it may take, as it arranges to send a bill to conference committee.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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