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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Year: 1994
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Alcohol Fuels Tax Incentives and the EPA Renewable Oxygenate Requirement
This report examines the current alcohol fuels Federal tax incentives. Part I describes the statutory provisions of each of the five incentives. Part II examines the major public policy and economic issues of concern to policymakers: potential revenue effects, effectiveness, and economic efficiency. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs110/
Alternative Sources of Wood for Japan
Japan is one of the world's largest wood importers, with two-thirds of its imports as logs (unprocessed timber). Southeast Asia has been the largest log supplier, but supplies (and exports to Japan) have been declining. The United States has become a more important supplier, but concerns about declining domestic timber supplies have led to proposals to prohibit or to tax log exports. Opponents suggest that Japan would simply turn to other sources to replace U.S. logs. One question in this debate is where the alternative sources of logs or wood products might be. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs143/
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the Indonesia "Summit" in 1994
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs130/
Below-Cost Timber Sales: An Overview
The Forest Service sells some timber at prices that are less than the agency costs to administer the timber program. This report discusses these "below-cost" timber sales that have been debated by Congress for more than a decade, but no policy to address the issue has been adopted legislatively or administratively. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs145/
Capital Gains and Securities Transactions Taxation in Japan: Fact Sheet
This fact sheet provides information on the taxation of securities transactions and capital gains income in Japan at the national level. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs155/
China: Current U.S. Sanctions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs120/
China in Transition: Changing Conditions and Implications for U.S. Interests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs147/
China-U.S. Trade Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs122/
China's MFN Status: Implications of the 1994 Decision
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs163/
China's Most-Favored-Nation Status: U.S. Wheat Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs160/
Chinese Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control Policies: Implications and Options for the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs171/
Cigarette Taxes to Fund Health Care Reform: An Economic Analysis
A cigarette excise tax increase of 75 cents per pack has been proposed to finance part of the President's universal health care program. The tax enjoys considerable public support, would raise about $11 billion per year, and would be relatively simple to administer because it would increase an existing manufacturer's excise tax. This report discusses these rationales, as well as other effects of and concerns about the tax, organized into topics of market failure as a justification for the tax (i.e., economic efficiency); potential for revenue; equity; and the job loss the tax might cause in tobacco growing regions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26039/
Clean Water Issues in the 104th Congress
For the 104th Congress, reauthorization of the Clean Water Act would seem likely to be a priority, since the Act was last amended in 1987 and authorizations expired on September 30, 1990. But legislative prospects in the 104th Congress are uncertain. Clean water also was a priority for the 103rd Congress, but, in 1994, Congress ran out of time and did not act on comprehensive amendments. Many of the issues proved to be too complex and controversial to be resolved easily, while Congress also was considering a large agenda of environmental and other bills. Controversies arose in connection with issues specific to the Clean Water Act and a trio of regulatory relief issues that became barriers to a number of bills in the 103rd Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs168/
Competitiveness: Economic Issue or Illusion?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs98/
Conservation Reserve Program: Policy Issues for the 1995 Farm Bill
The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), enacted in 1985, enables producers to bid to retire highly erodible or environmentally sensitive crop land for 10 years (or longer under certain circumstances). Successful bidders receive annual rental payments, and cost-sharing and technical assistance to install approved plantings. The program was to enroll between 40 and 45 million acres before 1996. Program goals are to reduce erosion and excess production, and more recently, to provide other environmental benefits. To date, about 36.5 million acres have been enrolled. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs92/
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: Its Past and Future
This report discusses the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It is divided into six sections: Introduction, Background, CITES and the Endangered Species Act, Implementation, Upcoming Events, and Appendices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs96/
Cuba-U.S. Relations: Should the United States Reexamine Its Policy?
This report first outlines the current U.S. policy approach toward Cuba and then discusses the option of moderating policy and what this strategy might entail. It then examines the arguments in favor of such a policy approach and the arguments opposed to changing U.S. Policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26055/
Current U.S. Sanctions Against China
In the months following China's 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown, both the President and the Congress took a number of initiatives protesting Beijing's actions. These initiatives centered around U.S. concerns related to trade, human rights, and non-proliferation. In intervening years, the United States has periodically imposed, lifted, or waived other sanctions and concluded several trade-related agreements with China relating to these concerns. Those measures that remain in place in 1994 are detailed in the accompanying tables. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs121/
Defense Burdensharing: Is Japan's Host Nation Support a Model for Other Allies?
This report reviews data that the Administration has provided to Congress on the costs of U.S. forces based abroad and on the value of host nation support contributions. It analyzes the data in order to assess potential defense budget savings from measures now under congressional consideration. The report concludes that, because of shortcomings in the data, estimates of savings in the U.S. defense budget from increased host nation contributions are often overstated. Some commonly accepted assertions frequently cited in the congressional burdensharing debate, therefore, are of doubtful validity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26049/
Defense Burdensharing: Is Japan's Host Nation Support a Model for Other Allies?
Under an agreement announced in January 1991, the Government of Japan committed itself to increase substantially the amount of support that it provides for U.S. military forces based there. Among other things, Japan agreed by 1995 to absorb 100 percent of the cost of Japanese nationals employed at U.S. military facilities and to pay for all utilities supplied to U.S. bases, to increase the amount of military and family housing construction that it is providing to support U.S. forces, to continue to provide facilities at no charge to the United States and to waive taxes and fees that might otherwise apply to U.S. activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs100/
Dispute Settlement Under the WTO and Trade Problems with Japan
Under the World Trade Organization (WTO), the United States may use the dispute settlement mechanism to resolve certain trade problems with Japan. As compared with the mechanism under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the WTO offers expanded coverage and nearly automatic approval for panel requests and reports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs136/
Dispute Settlement Under the WTO and Trade Problems with Japan
Under the World Trade Organization (WTO), the United States may use the dispute settlement mechanism to resolve certain trade problems with Japan. As compared with the mechanism under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the WTO offers expanded coverage and nearly automatic approval for panel requests and reports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs132/
DOE Environmental Technology Department - A Fact Sheet
The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development in 1989 to develop faster and less expensive technical solutions to the Department's widespread environmental problems, primarily the legacy of decades of nuclear weapons production. Without new environmental technologies, DOE contends, some types of contamination may prove impossible to clean up. The Office of Technology Development, which is part of DOE's Environmental Management Program (EM), manages all stages of the development of new environmental restoration and waste management technologies, from basic research and development through final testing, demonstration and evaluation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs111/
Does Trade Reduce Wages of U.S. Workers?
This report examines in some detail the hypothesis that trade is undermining the economic status of the American worker. Two questions are addressed: one, Has trade tended to reduce the average level of wages? and, two, Has trade increased the inequality of wages? The general conclusion reached is that poor wage performance is largely a problem of the domestic economy, that would have occurred with or without trade. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs141/
East Asia: The New Triangular Relationship, Implications for U.S. Influence, and Options for U.S. Policy
Recent criticism of the Clinton Administration's policies toward China, Japan and other East Asian countries has contended that the United States is exerting much less influence and is becoming marginal in determining developments in this economically vibrant and strategically important area. Although there are important costs to U.S. influence associated with disputes with Beijing, Tokyo and others, an assessment of the U.S.-Japanese-Chinese triangular relationship that currently dominates trends in the region shows that the United States is likely to continue its influential position in post Cold War East Asia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs116/
Enlargement in Central Europe
In December 1994, NATO members will begin the process of debating possible criteria for new members from Central Europe. Alliance relations with Russia will be a central factor determining the outcome of the debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26059/
Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: Recent Developments
If general regulatory reform bills were enacted, debates on statute-specific reauthorizations could shift from regulatory reforms to the substantive regulatory requirements of each Act. In this case, regulatory reform could consist of proposals to modify statutory requirements to reduce costs to the private sector and State and local governments, to increase flexibility, and to reduce or compensate regulatory impacts on the value of private property. At issue would be a series of potential tradeoffs, for example among efficiency of environmental regulations, national consistency versus local flexibility, protection of private property rights, and degrees of health and environmental protection. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs113/
Fair Trade in Financial Services: Legislation and the GATT
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs115/
Flat Panel Display (FPD) Technology: An Introduction to the Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs157/
Granting Most-Favored-Nation Status to China as a Market Economy Country
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs161/
Guiding a Bill Through the Legislative Process
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs99/
Implementing Acid Rain Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs94/
The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Amendments Act of 1994, S. 2230 (103rd Cong., 2nd Sess.): A Brief Analysis
This report provides an analysis of S. 2230, the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act Amendments of 1994 introduced June 23, 1994, to amend the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. It includes sections on stated purposes, enhanced powers of the National Indian Gaming Commission, proposed tribal-state compacting process, modifications of current law with respect to class II gaming, modification of current law with respect to class III gaming, and miscellaneous amendments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26052/
The Information Superhighway: Status and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6356/
Intellectual Property Provisions of the GATT 1994: "The TRIPS Agreement"
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs131/
International Financial Institutions and Environment: Multilateral Development Banks and the Global Environment Facility
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs138/
International Science and Technology: Issues for U.S. Policymakers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs156/
An Introduction to Farm Commodity Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs91/
Japan-U.S. Automotive Framework Talks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs167/
Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress in the 1990s
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs126/
Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress in the 1990s
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs125/
Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress in the 1990s
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs128/
Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress in the 1990s
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs127/
Japan-U.S. Trade Negotiations Under the Framework: Status and Alternative Approaches
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs164/
Japan-U.S. Trade Negotiations: Will the Deadlock Be Broken?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs165/
Japanese and U.S. Economic Involvement in Asia and the Pacific: Comparative Data and Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs139/
Japan's Budget: Role in Economic Policymaking
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs106/
Japan's Economy: From Bubble to Bust
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs104/
Japan's Keiretsu: Industrial Groups as Trade Barriers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs119/
Japan's Looming Bank Crisis: A Half Trillion Dollars in Non-Performing Loans?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs108/
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