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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2006
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and High Power Microwave (HPM) Devices: Threat Assessments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8769/
Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9804/
Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8584/
Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress
Science and technology have a pervasive influence over a wide range of issues confronting the nation. Decisions on how much federal funding to invest in research and development (R&D) and determining what programs have the highest priority, for example, may have implications for homeland security, new high technology industries, government/private sector cooperation in R&D, and myriad other areas. This report indicates the sweep of science and technology in many public policy issues, such as global climate change, stem cell research, patent protection, and telecommunications reform. This report also addresses key issues that directly affect, or are affected by, science and technology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10385/
Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture: Status and Current Issues
This report discusses the status and current issues regarding animal agriculture that is being transformed by rapid advances in biotechnology. This report will be updated as significant developments in agricultural biotechnology occur and as Congress develops legislation addressing emerging agricultural biotechnology issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8961/
Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research
In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. Federal research is limited to “the more than 60” existing stem cell lines that were derived (1) with the informed consent of the donors; (2) from excess embryos created solely for reproductive purposes; and (3) without any financial inducements to the donors. No federal funds may be used for the derivation or use of stem cell lines derived from newly destroyed embryos; the creation of any human embryos for research purposes; or cloning of human embryos for any purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9868/
Background and Legal Issues Related to Stem Cell Research
In August 2001, President Bush announced that federal funds, with certain restrictions, may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. This report explains the limitations on this research, as well as corresponding and related legislation to the issue of embryonic stem cell research, including the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10274/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2006
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8678/
Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9378/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9699/
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2007
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8959/
Countries of the World and International Organizations: Sources of Information
This report provides a selection of materials for locating information on foreign countries and international organizations. In the general information section, it presents sources giving an overview of politics, economics, and recent history. A specialized information section cites sources on human rights, immigration, international organizations, military strengths, terrorism, and other topics. Included are titles of some of the most frequently consulted bibliographic sources that are available for use in many libraries. Electronic information on foreign countries is also provided, via the Internet, by agencies of the federal government, international organizations, and related sources. Included is a list of foreign chanceries located in Washington, D.C. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9755/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9455/
Homeland Security Research and Development Funding, Organization, and Oversight
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Homeland Security Research and Development Funding, Organization, and Oversight
The Homeland Security Act consolidated some research and development (R&D) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), whose FY2007 R&D budget (excluding management/procurement) was requested at $1.1 billion, about 10% less than FY2006, and represents the first decline in DHS's R&D funding since the agency started funding R&D in 2002. DHS is mandated to coordinate all federal agency homeland security R&D, which was requested at about $5.1 billion. This report lists related legislation and policy issues relating to DHS's R&D programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10262/
Manipulating Molecules: Federal Support for Nanotechnology Research
The Bush Administration has requested $1.277 billion for nanotechnology research for FY2007. Nanotechnology is a newly emerging field of science where scientists and engineers are beginning to manipulate matter at the molecular and atomic levels in order to obtain materials and systems with significantly improved properties. Scientists note that nanotechnology is still in its infancy, with large scale practical applications 10 to 30 year away. Congressional concerns include funding for the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), the potential environmental and health concerns associated with the development and deployment of nanotechnology, and the need to adopt international measurement standards for nanotechnology. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10288/
Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 109th Congress
Federal research and development (R&D) funding priorities reflect presidential policies and national needs. For FY2007, R&D is requested at almost $137 billion of budget authority, about 1.8% more than enacted in FY2006. The FY2007 budget would fund three interagency R&D initiatives: networking and information technology; climate change science; and nanotechnology. The Administration is using performance measures for R&D budgeting, including the Government Performance and Results Act and the Program Assessment Rating Tool. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10516/
Countries of the World and International Organizations: Sources of Information
This report provides a selection of materials for locating information on foreign countries and international organizations. In the general information section, it presents sources giving an overview of politics, economics, and recent history. A specialized information section cites sources on human rights, immigration, international organizations, military strengths, terrorism, and other topics. Included are titles of some of the most frequently consulted bibliographic sources that are available for use in many libraries. Electronic information on foreign countries is also provided, via the Internet, by agencies of the federal government, international organizations, and related sources. Included is a list of foreign chanceries located in Washington, DC. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10526/
Stem Cell Research
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8295/
The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"
This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9938/
Cooperative R
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9461/
Cooperative R
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9460/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8930/
U.S. National Science Foundation: An Overview
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National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10141/
The Federal Networking and Information Technology Research and Development Program: Funding Issues and Activities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8451/
Agricultural Biotechnology: Background and Recent Issues
Since the first genetically engineered (GE) crops (also called GM [genetically modified] crops, or GMOs, genetically modified organisms) became commercially available in the mid-1990s, U.S. soybean, cotton, and corn farmers have rapidly adopted them. As adoption has spread, there have been policy debates over the costs and benefits of GE products. Issues include the impacts of GE crops on the environment and food safety, and whether GE foods should be specially labeled. Congress generally has been supportive of GE agricultural products, although some Members have expressed wariness about their adoption and regulation. The 109th Congress will likely continue to follow trade developments, particularly the U.S.-EU dispute, as well as U.S. regulatory mechanisms for approving biotech foods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9392/
Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress
There is a lack of consensus regarding the best method of balancing scientific publishing and national security. The current federal policy, as described in National Security Decision Directive 189, is that fundamental research should remain unrestricted and that in the rare case where it is necessary to restrict such information, classification is the appropriate vehicle to do so. Other mechanisms restrict international information flow, where Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) control export of items and technical information on specific lists. Both EAR and ITAR contain a fundamental research exclusion, but this exclusion is lost if prepublication review of research results for sensitive information occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8579/
"Sensitive but Unclassified" Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information
This report traces the evolution of "sensitive but unclassified" or SBU-related controls; summarizes actions taken to protect certain types of scientific and technical information; describes critiques of some control policies; and summarizes proposals and actions, including congressional, executive and other initiatives, to clarify these issues and develop policies that serve various stakeholders. It also raises issues that may warrant further attention. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8704/
Oversight of Dual-Use Biological Research: The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9418/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9545/
Homeland Security Research and Development Funding, Organization, and Oversight
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9540/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9715/
Cooperative R
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment designed to increase the competitiveness of American industry and to encourage the generation of new products, processes, and services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9714/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
The federal government spends approximately one-third of its annual research and development budget for intramural R&D to meet mission requirements in over 700 government laboratories (including Federally Funded Research and Development Centers). The technology and expertise generated by this endeavor may have application beyond the immediate goals or intent of federally funded R&D. Congress has established a system to facilitate the transfer of technology to the private sector and to state and local governments. Critics of this policy argue that working with the agencies and laboratories continues to be difficult and time-consuming. Proponents of the current effort assert that while the laboratories are open to interested parties, the industrial community is making little effort to use them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10317/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
The federal government spends approximately one-third of its annual research and development budget for intramural R&D to meet mission requirements in over 700 government laboratories (including Federally Funded Research and Development Centers). The technology and expertise generated by this endeavor may have application beyond the immediate goals or intent of federally funded R&D. Congress has established a system to facilitate the transfer of technology to the private sector and to state and local governments. Critics of this policy argue that working with the agencies and laboratories continues to be difficult and time-consuming. Proponents of the current effort assert that while the laboratories are open to interested parties, the industrial community is making little effort to use them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10316/
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9465/
Industrial Competitiveness and Technological Advancement: Debate Over Government Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9464/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9463/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9462/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9843/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9842/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9878/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
The government spends approximately one third of the $83 billion federal R&D budget for intramural research and development to meet mission requirements in over 700 government laboratories. Congress has established a system to facilitate the transfer of technology to the private sector and to state and local governments. Despite this, use of federal R&D results has remained restrained, although there has been a significant increase in private sector interest and activities over the past several years. At issue is whether incentives for technology transfer remain necessary, if additional legislative initiatives are needed to encourage increased technology transfer, or if the responsibility to use the available resources now rests with the private sector. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10513/
Cooperative R&D: Federal Efforts to Promote Industrial Competitiveness
In response to the foreign challenge in the global marketplace, the United States Congress has explored ways to stimulate technological advancement in the private sector. The government has supported various efforts to promote cooperative research and development activities among industry, universities, and the federal R&D establishment. Among the issues before Congress are whether joint ventures contribute to industrial competitiveness and what role, if any, the government has in facilitating such agreements. Collaborative ventures are intended to accommodate the strengths and responsibilities of all sectors involved innovation and technology development. Given the increased popularity of cooperative programs, questions might be raised as to whether they are meeting expectations. These include questions about the emphasis on collaborative ventures in research rather than in technology development; cooperative manufacturing; defense vs. civilian support; and access by foreign companies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10511/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
The increased presence of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs and in the scientific workforce has been and continues to be of concern to some in the scientific community. Enrollment of U.S. citizens in graduate science and engineering programs has not kept pace with that of foreign students in those programs. In addition to the number of foreign students in graduate science and engineering programs, a significant number of university faculty in the scientific disciplines are foreign, and foreign doctorates are employed in large numbers by industry. This report explains this issue in detail, as well as probable causes of said incongruity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10524/
Foreign Science and Engineering Presence in U.S. Institutions and the Labor Force
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8352/
Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8454/
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9433/
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9432/
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