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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2002
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Enron: A Select Chronology of Congressional, Corporate, and Government Activities
This report presents basic background information on the collapse of the Enron Corporation, identifying public policy issues in financial market oversight. This report briefly summarizes some federal laws carrying criminal penalties which may be implicated in the events surrounding the collapse of the Enron Corp. This report compares the auditing and accounting reform measures passed by the House (H.R. 3763) and reported by the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. This report compares the major provisions of three auditor and accounting reform proposals: H.R. 3763, S. 2673, and a rule proposed on June 20, 2002, by the SEC that would create a new auditor oversight board by using the SEC’s existing authority to regulate corporate accounting. The report focuses on Section 404(a) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), the federal statute that regulates employer-sponsored pension plans. Section 404(a) is considered the “touchstone for understanding the scope and object of an ERISA fiduciary’s duties.” digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2298/
Enron: A Select Chronology of Congressional, Corporate, and Government Activities
This report presents basic background information on the collapse of the Enron Corporation, identifying public policy issues in financial market oversight. This report briefly summarizes some federal laws carrying criminal penalties which may be implicated in the events surrounding the collapse of the Enron Corp. This report compares the auditing and accounting reform measures passed by the House (H.R. 3763) and reported by the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. This report compares the major provisions of three auditor and accounting reform proposals: H.R. 3763, S. 2673, and a rule proposed on June 20, 2002, by the SEC that would create a new auditor oversight board by using the SEC’s existing authority to regulate corporate accounting. The report focuses on Section 404(a) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), the federal statute that regulates employer-sponsored pension plans. Section 404(a) is considered the “touchstone for understanding the scope and object of an ERISA fiduciary’s duties.” digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2299/
Enron: A Select Chronology of Congressional, Corporate, and Government Activities
This report presents basic background information on the collapse of the Enron Corporation, identifying public policy issues in financial market oversight. This report briefly summarizes some federal laws carrying criminal penalties which may be implicated in the events surrounding the collapse of the Enron Corp. This report compares the auditing and accounting reform measures passed by the House (H.R. 3763) and reported by the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. This report compares the major provisions of three auditor and accounting reform proposals: H.R. 3763, S. 2673, and a rule proposed on June 20, 2002, by the SEC that would create a new auditor oversight board by using the SEC’s existing authority to regulate corporate accounting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2300/
Assassination Ban and E.O. 12333: A Brief Summary
This report offers a brief summary of the assassination ban contained in Executive Order (E.O.) 12333, Section 2.11. E.O. 12333 is the latest in a series of three executive orders which included assassination bans. The first, Executive Order 11905, Sec. 5(g),1 41 Fed. Reg. 7703, 7733 (President Gerald Ford, 2/19/76), was part of an executive order issued by President Ford in response to concerns raised in the 1970's with respect to alleged abuses by the U.S. intelligence community. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2392/
Foreign Support of the U.S. War on Terrorism
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7009/
Foreign Support of the U.S. War on Terrorism
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6523/
Obscenity and Indecency: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2341/
Obscenity and Indecency: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2342/
Gun Control Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2345/
Gun Control Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2346/
Gun Control Legislation in the 107th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2347/
Obscenity, Child Pornography, and Indecency: Recent Developments and Pending Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2343/
Obscenity, Child Pornography, and Indecency: Recent Developments and Pending Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2344/
Hate Crimes: Sketch of Selected Proposals and Congressional Authority
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2388/
Agroterrorism: Options in Congress
Although U.S. intelligence agencies have not identified any terrorist acts targeting agricultural production (i.e., agroterrorism) in the United States to date, the events of September 11, 2001 have awakened the nation to their possibility. Some experts estimate that a single agroterrorist attack using a highly contagious livestock disease could cost between $10 billion and $30 billion to the U.S. economy. This report examines the potential threats to America’s agriculture from a deliberate biological attack, describes the current defense structure and capabilities available to respond to agroterrorism, and analyzes current congressional proposals to address the threat of biological weapons to U.S. agriculture. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2118/
Terrorism and Extraterritorial Jurisdiction in Criminal Cases: Recent Developments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9282/
Terrorism and Extraterritorial Jurisdiction in Criminal Cases: Recent Developments in Brief
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9281/
Bioterrorism: Legislation to Improve Public Health Preparedness and Response Capacity
This report shows that while lawmakers work towards final passage of new authorizing legislation, Congress has appropriated more than $3 billion to the Dept. of Health and Human Services (HHS) to increase bioterrorism preparedness at the federal, state, and local levels. HHS anti-bioterrorism funding was included in the FY2002 Labor-HHSEducation appropriations bill and in the $20 billion emergency spending package that was attached to the FY2002 Defense appropriations bill. Until the new authorizing legislation is enacted, HHS is dispersing the funds according to existing authorities and the broad parameters set out in the appropriations bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3146/
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes
The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2234/
Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes
The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2233/
Violence Against Women Act: History, Federal Funding, and Reauthorizing Legislation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6840/
China's Relations with Central Asian States and Problems with Terrorism
This report provides an overview of the Muslim separatist movement in China’s northwestern Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, China’s attempts to stifle activities which it considers terrorism, and implications for U.S. policy. Some analysts suggest that the U.S.-led campaign against terrorism may make it difficult to pressure the Chinese government on human rights and religious freedoms, particularly as they relate to Uighur Muslims in Xinjiang. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6842/
Enron: Selected Securities, Accounting, and Pension Laws Possibly Implicated in its Collapse
This report takes a brief look at some of the federal statutes concerning finance that the Congress and the Executive branch may focus on in their investigations. The report considers three major areas: the federal securities laws, the federal pension laws, and accounting standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2816/
Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat
This report addresses the cyber-vulnerability of critical infrastructure industries which regularly use industrial control systems. Industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by different routes, including wireless transmission, direct access to control system computers, exploitation of dial-up modems used for maintenance, or through the Internet. This report will specifically discuss the potential for access to industrial control systems through the Internet. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3173/
Homeland Security - Reducing the Vulnerability of Public and Private Information Infrastructures to Terrorism: An Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3175/
Welfare Law and Domestic Violence
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3685/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2365/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2366/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2367/
Drug Control: International Policy and Options
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2358/
Drug Control: International Policy and Options
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2352/
Drug Control: International Policy and Options
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2351/
Drug Control: International Policy and Options
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2353/
Drug Control: International Policy and Options
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2354/
Drug Control: International Policy and Options
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2355/
Drug Control: International Policy and Options
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2357/
Drug Control: International Policy and Options
Over the past decade, worldwide production of illicit drugs has risen dramatically: opium and marijuana production has roughly doubled and coca production tripled. Street prices of cocaine and heroin have fallen significantly in the past 20 years, reflecting increased availability. Despite apparent national political resolve to deal with the drug problem, inherent contradictions regularly appear between U.S. anti-drug policy and other national policy goals and concerns. The mix of competing domestic and international pressures and priorities has produced an ongoing series of disputes within and between the legislative and executive branches concerning U.S. international drug policy. One contentious issue has been the Congressionally-mandated certification process, an instrument designed to induce specified drug-exporting countries to prioritize or pay more attention to the fight against narcotics businesses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2356/
Military Tribunals: The Quirin Precedent
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2383/
Supplemental Appropriations for FY2002: Combating Terrorism and Other Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2382/
Supplemental Appropriations for FY2002: Combating Terrorism and Other Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2386/
Supplemental Appropriations for FY2002: Combating Terrorism and Other Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2387/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2368/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2369/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2370/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2371/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2373/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2374/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2372/
Terrorism, the Future, and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2375/
Crime Control: The Federal Response
Under the federal system in the United States, the states and localities traditionally have held the major responsibility for prevention and control of crime and maintenance of order. For most of the Republic’s history, “police powers” in the broad sense were reserved to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution. Many still hold that view, but others see a string of court decisions in recent decades as providing the basis for a far more active federal role. Several bills are discussed in this report that address issues related to crime, juvenile justice, and school violence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2348/
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