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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2001
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The World Trade Organization: Background and Issues

The World Trade Organization: Background and Issues

Date: January 12, 2001
Creator: Sek, Lenore
Description: The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established on January 1, 1995, under an agreement reached during the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations. The Uruguay Round was the last of a series of periodic trade negotiations held under the auspices of the WTO’s predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Among the questions asked during debate on U.S. trade policy and the WTO are: To what extent should the United States meet its trade goals in theWTO versus other options? Can the United States maintain its sovereignty as a member of the WTO? Are U.S. interests served through the WTO dispute process? Should the WTO continue to cover traditional trade issues only, or should it be broadened to include nontraditional issues such as labor and the environment? What is the role of Congress in U.S. participation in the WTO?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The World Trade Organization: Background and Issues

The World Trade Organization: Background and Issues

Date: June 4, 2001
Creator: Sek, Lenore
Description: The World Trade Organization (WTO), which was established on January 1, 1995, is the principal organization for rules governing international trade. This report provides general background on the WTO: its establishment, principles, administrative bodies, and membership. It also includes a brief discussion of policy issues pertaining to the WTO agenda, U.S. sovereignty and membership in the WTO, the congressional role in U.S. participation in the WTO, and pursuit of U.S. trade goals in the WTO compared to other options.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorism: Near Eastern Groups and State Sponsors, 2001

Terrorism: Near Eastern Groups and State Sponsors, 2001

Date: September 10, 2001
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties

Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties

Date: March 28, 2001
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorist Attack on USS Cole: Background and Issues for Congress

Terrorist Attack on USS Cole: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: January 30, 2001
Creator: Perl, Raphael F & O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Terrorism: Automated Lookout Systems and Border Security Options and Issues

Terrorism: Automated Lookout Systems and Border Security Options and Issues

Date: June 18, 2001
Creator: Krouse, William J & Perl, Raphael F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2001 Summit in Shanghai

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2001 Summit in Shanghai

Date: October 26, 2001
Creator: Nanto, Dick K
Description: On October 20-21, 2001, the Ninth APEC Leaders’ Meeting (summit) was hosted by China in Shanghai. The office theme for APEC 2001 was “Meeting New Challenges in the New Century: Achieving Common Prosperity through Participation and Cooperation” with the sub-themes of: (1) sharing the benefits of globalization and the new economy, (2) advancing trade and investment, and (3) promoting sustained economic growth. For the United States, APEC raises fundamental questions that are of special interest to Congress. One is whether consensus can be achieved on the APEC vision of free trade and investment in the Asia Pacific or whether future trade liberalization will be confined primarily to bilateral free-trade agreements or multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization.
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Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity

Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity

Date: November 14, 2001
Creator: Pregelj, Vladimir N
Description: The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA.
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Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview

Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview

Date: January 18, 2001
Creator: Segarra, Alejandro E & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report presents a background on Biosafety Protocol for genetically modified organisms and an overview of Biosafety Protocol negotiations, key provisions and related issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Latin America: Terrorism Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

Latin America: Terrorism Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

Date: October 13, 2001
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trying Terrorists as War Criminals

Trying Terrorists as War Criminals

Date: November 28, 2001
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity

Caribbean Basin Interim Trade Program: CBI/NAFTA Parity

Date: February 5, 2001
Creator: Pregelj, Vladimir N
Description: The entry into force, on January 1, 1994, of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has eliminated the advantage that the beneficiaries of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) and related provisions of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) had enjoyed in trade with the United States relative to Mexico, and gave Mexico an increasingly significant competitive edge over the CBERA countries. The scheduled further implementation of the NAFTA would have resulted in a substantial advantage to Mexico over the CBERA countries and vitiate in part the purpose of the CBERA.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress

Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress

Date: November 13, 2001
Creator: Bowman, Steven R
Description: The Convention provides the most extensive and intrusive verification regime of any arms control treaty, extending its coverage to not only governmental but also civilian facilities. The Convention also requires export controls and reporting requirements on chemicals that can be used as warfare agents and their precursors. The CWC establishes the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to oversee the Convention's implementation. Chemical Weapons Convention implementing legislation, as S. 610, passed the Senate unanimously on May 23, 1997. This legislation, which was an amendment in the nature of a substitute reported from the Judiciary Committee, provides the statutory authority for domestic compliance with the Convention's provisions. It sets criminal and civil penalties for the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, transfer, possession, or use of chemical weapons.
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Terrorism Funding: FY2002 Appropriations Bills

Terrorism Funding: FY2002 Appropriations Bills

Date: October 25, 2001
Creator: Nowels, Larry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trying Terrorists as War Criminals

Trying Terrorists as War Criminals

Date: October 29, 2001
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cyberwarfare

Cyberwarfare

Date: June 19, 2001
Creator: Hildreth, Steven A
Description: Cyberwarfare raises issues of growing national interest and concern. Cyberwarfare can be used to describe various aspects of defending and attacking information and computer networks in cyberspace, as well as denying an adversary’s ability to do the same. Some major problems encountered with cyber attacks, in particular, are the difficulty in determining the origin and nature of the attack and in assessing the damage incurred.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Countries of the World and International Organizations: Sources of Information

Countries of the World and International Organizations: Sources of Information

Date: May 2, 2001
Creator: Salazar, Barbara A
Description: This report provides a selection of materials for locating information on foreign countries and international organizations. In the general information section, it presents sources giving an overview of politics, economics, and recent history. A specialized information section cites sources on human rights, immigration, international organizations, military strengths, terrorism, and other topics. Included are titles of some of the most frequently consulted bibliographic sources that are available for use in many libraries. Electronic information on foreign countries is also provided, via the Internet, by agencies of the federal government, international organizations, and related sources. Included is a list of foreign chanceries located in Washington, D.C.
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World Heritage Convention and U.S. National Parks

World Heritage Convention and U.S. National Parks

Date: April 24, 2001
Creator: McHugh, Lois B
Description: On March 6, 2001, Congressman Don Young introduced H.R. 883, the American Land Sovereignty Act. H.R. 883 requires congressional approval to add any lands owned by the United States to the World Heritage List, a UNESCO-administered list established by the 1972 World Heritage Convention. In related legislation, P.L. 106-429, in which H.R. 5526, the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs appropriations act for 2001 was referenced, contained language prohibiting funding from this bill for the United Nations World Heritage Fund. The World Heritage Fund provides technical assistance to countries requesting help in protecting World Heritage sites. This paper describes the operation of the UNESCO Convention and will be updated periodically.
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Terrorism and the Law of War: Trying Terrorists as War Criminals before Military Commissions

Terrorism and the Law of War: Trying Terrorists as War Criminals before Military Commissions

Date: December 11, 2001
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy

Date: February 14, 2001
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Taliban and the Drug Trade

Taliban and the Drug Trade

Date: October 5, 2001
Creator: Perl, Raphael F
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
World Heritage Convention and U.S. National Parks

World Heritage Convention and U.S. National Parks

Date: April 24, 2001
Creator: McHugh, Lois B
Description: This report describes the operation of the UNESCO Convention and will be updated periodically. The World Heritage Fund provides technical assistance to countries requesting help in protecting World Heritage sites.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR): U.S. Membership

United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR): U.S. Membership

Date: June 4, 2001
Creator: Bite, Vita
Description: This short report provides an overview of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR and Administration and Congressional responses to recent developments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Relations with Central Asian States and Problems with Terrorism

China's Relations with Central Asian States and Problems with Terrorism

Date: December 17, 2001
Creator: McNeal, Dewardric L
Description: This report provides an overview of the Muslim separatist movement in China’s northwestern Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, China’s attempts to stifle activities which it considers terrorism, and implications for U.S. policy. Some analysts suggest that the U.S.-led campaign against terrorism may make it difficult to pressure the Chinese government on human rights and religious freedoms, particularly as they relate to Uighur Muslims in Xinjiang.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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