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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Year: 1993
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Air Quality: Impacts of Trip Reduction Programs on States and Affected Employers
This report discusses employer trip reduction (ETR) programs, which would require large employers to implement certain transportation control measures as part of a national effort to combat air pollution, largely as a direct result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs45/
APEC - Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation: Free Trade and Other Issues
As a result of an initiative by Australia in 1989, the United States joined with eleven other Asia/Pacific nations in creating APEC, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation organization. This report discusses the annual Ministerial Meeting of APEC in Seattle, held from November 17 - 19, 1993. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs83/
Aquaculture and the Federal Role
Aquaculture is broadly defined as the production of fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants in a controlled environment. This report discusses the growth of U.S. aquaculture in the decade preceding 1993, and the subsequent debate about what role, if any, the Federal Government should play in supporting the industry. Relevant legislation and policies are also discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs43/
Asia's Reaction to NAFTA
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs66/
Background to the Overthrow of President Aristide
This report provides background information on the violent and authoritarian traditions that have characterized Haiti's political dynamics since Haiti attained independence in 1804. It examines Haiti's difficult path toward democracy after the fall of the Duvalier regime, from numerous short-lived governments until the election of Aristide. Finally, the report also surveys Aristide's rule and his subsequent overthrow by the Haitian military. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26034/
Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights
This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8176/
China in Transition: Changing Conditions and Implications for U.S. Interests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs72/
China's Most-Favored-Nation Status: U.S. Wheat Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs79/
Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs90/
The Delaney Dilemma: Regulating Pesticide Residues in Foods -- Seminar Proceedings, March 16, 1993
A provision in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Delaney Clause, appears to lower risks in the setting of tolerances for pesticide residues. It prohibits any substance from being added to processed foods if it induces cancer in man or animals. In reality, the provision created a dilemma because the zero-risk statute makes it difficult to regulate pesticides. Because of the prescription of Delaney, tolerances (legal limits) are established differently for carcinogens and non-carcinogens and in raw and processed foods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs60/
A Directory of Some Interest Groups and Governmental Organizations Concerned With National Environmental Policies
This report briefly describes selected associations that have demonstrated strong and continuous interest in environmental protection policies of the United States. It provides background information on some of the active participants in national policy discussions. The set of organizations abstracted for this report is not comprehensive; many groups necessarily have been omitted, often because they failed to respond to our request for information. An attempt was made to balance divergent political opinions and to include groups with different perspectives. All associations included in the report have nationwide membership, maintain an office in the vicinity of the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, and actively seek to influence national (as opposed to international or regional) environmental policies. The financial information provided varies depending on what was available to CRS. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs55/
Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definitions and Use
This paper describes the meaning and applications of ecosystem and of the related terms watershed and biome. It discusses the pros and cons of all three as organizing principles for land management, and the major issues that are likely to arise in the debate over ecosystem management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs70/
The Endangered Species Act and Private Property
If the 103rd Congress embarks upon an effort to reauthorize the Endangered Species Act (ESA), it will run into an old acquaintance: the property rights issue. As now written, the ESA has at least the potential to curtail property rights (whatever its actual impact as implemented may be). This report explores the legal repercussions of those impacts, especially whether they constitute takings of property under the fifth amendment of the U.S. Constitution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26028/
Ethanol and Clean Air: The "Reg-Neg" Controversy and Subsequent Events
The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), enacted in 1990, called for cleaner automotive fuels in order to upgrade air quality. This appeared to provide new market potential for ethanol, which is obtained from corn grown in the midwestern United States, and which is already in large-scale use in a blend of ten percent ethanol to ninety percent gasoline. The CAAA left specific details of the clean fuels program to be worked out by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in consultation with the interested parties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs44/
Excise Tax Financing of Federal Trust Funds
Dedicated excise taxes finance only a small number of the many activities undertaken by the Federal Government. The fourteen trust funds and special funds currently financed by excise taxes can be grouped under four programmatic purposes: nature conservation and recreation, transportation, environmental cleanup, and health damage compensation. In close parallel, the products currently subject to taxation on behalf of trust and special funds can be classified under the categories of hunting and fishing equipment; cargo transport and air passenger transportation; motor fuels; and materials potentially hazardous to the environment or human health. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs50/
Foreign Assistance and Commercial Interests: The Aid for Trade Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs59/
Foreign Direct Investment in the U.S.: Japan as Number One
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs57/
Global Climate Change
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7823/
Health Care Fact Sheet: International Health Spending
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs69/
High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal - A Fact Sheet
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs75/
Hong Kong: Sino-British Disputes and Implications for U.S. Interests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs74/
Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798-1993
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs52/
Israeli-Palestinian Agreement
On August 27, 1993, Israel and the Palestinians announced that Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) official Mahmoud Abbas (also known as Abu Mazen) had initialed a landmark agreement on August 19 in Oslo, Norway on a Declaration of Principles on interim self-government for the West Bank and Gaza Strip. On September 9, PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin exchanged letters unprecedented mutual recognition. On September 10, President Clinton welcomed the agreement, thanked Congress for its support, and announced that the United States would resume its dialog with the PLO. The Declaration was signed at the White House on September 13. This report provides summaries of the Declaration and the letters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26032/
Japan and NAFTA
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs67/
Japan-U.S. Relations: Policy Issues for the Clinton Administration and the 103rd Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs63/
Japan-U.S. Relations: U.S. Officials' Attitudes on the Eve of the Clinton Administration
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs68/
Japan-U.S. Trade: Results of Trade Negotiations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs85/
Japan-U.S. Trade: Results of Trade Negotiations - An Issue Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs76/
Japan-U.S. Trade: The Construction Services Issue
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs49/
Japan-U.S. Trade: The Structural Impediments Initiative
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs77/
The Japan-United States Framework for Trade Negotiations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs81/
Japanese Lobbying and U.S. Automobile Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs61/
Japanese Officials' View of Relations with the Clinton Administration, May-June 1993
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs65/
Japanese-U.S. Trade Relations: Cooperation or Confrontation?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs87/
Japanese-U.S. Trade Relations: Cooperation or Confrontation?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs86/
Japan's Foreign Aid
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs64/
Japan's Global Trade Surplus: Its Nature and Significance
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs84/
Japan's Import Protection: Quantitative Measures and Effects on U.S. Exports
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs82/
Japan's Sea Shipment of Plutonium
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs53/
Mexican Spotted Owls: Federal Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs47/
Mexican Wolf: Federal Protection
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs48/
Mixing Banking and Commerce Using Federal Deposit Insurance: Industrial Banks and Nonbank Banks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs58/
NAFTA: A Broad Economic Perspective
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs54/
North Korea: Policy Determinants, Alternative Outcomes, U.S. Policy Approaches
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs73/
Plant Closings, Mass Layoffs, and Worker Dislocations: Data Issues
For at least 15 years Members of Congress have continued to ask: How many U.S. manufacturing plants have closed? For at least 15 years they have continued to ask: How many U.S. manufacturing plants have relocated abroad, and where have they gone? For at least 15 years the answer has been: For the most part, those questions can't be answered, based on Government data. How many plants are moving to Mexico? What industries and what States are the plants from? How many U.S. workers are losing their jobs as a result? It appears that still, after two legislative attempts to mandate collection of these data, the Government publishes no counts of U.S. plant closings, and almost no information on plant relocations. Options for strengthening the data systems include addressing three main weaknesses: inadequate data program design, a plant closing definition that misses its mark, and publication of partial instead of complete survey results. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26029/
President Bush's Judicial Nominations During the 101st and 102nd Congresses
There are ten categories of courts (including the local courts of the District of Columbia) to which the President nominates judges. The report provides background and statistics concerning President Bush's judicial nominations in each court category as well as actions taken on those nominations by the United States Senate. Each of the report's ten sections discusses the composition and jurisdiction of the court in question and notes the committee to which nominations to this court were referred when received by the Senate. Also, statistics on judicial nominations received by the Senate during the four years of the Bush Presidency are presented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26030/
Redefining the Federal Role in Elementary and Secondary Education: The Goals 2000 Proposal and Reauthorization of the ESEA
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8175/
Restricting Softwood Log Exports: Policy and Legal Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs71/
Russian-Japanese Impasse and Its Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs62/
The Steel Jaw Leghold Trap: Issues and Concerns
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs46/
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