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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Year: 1992
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Basic Questions on U.S. Citizenship and Naturalization
U.S. citizenship is conferred at birth under the principle of jus soli (nationality of place of birth) and the principle of jus sanguinis (nationality of parents). The U.S. Constitution states as a fundamental rule of jus soli citizenship that "all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside." The exceptions to universal citizenship comprehended by the requirement that a person be born "subject to the jurisdiction thereof" include: (1) children born to a foreign sovereign or accredited diplomatic official; (2) children born on a foreign public vessel, such as a warship; (3) children born to an alien enemy in hostile occupation; and (4) native Indians. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26024/
China/Asia Broadcasting: Proposals for New U.S. Surrogate Services
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs33/
Clearcutting in the National Forests
Congressional interest in clearcutting has increased in the past few years. Several bills have been introduced in the current and preceding Congresses to ban the use of clearcutting and/or all even-aged management systems in the national forests. The issue, however, transcends the use of clearcutting and focuses on how to assure the choice of a silvicultural system and the implementation of the management practices that will achieve the stated goals for public land and resource management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs34/
Commercial Relations with Russia: Prospects for a Common United States-Japanese Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs30/
Congress and Trade Policy Toward Japan
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Deforestation: An Overview of Global Programs and Agreements
In recent years, global environmental concerns have figured prominently on the American political agenda. In particular, tropical deforestation and its implications for global climate change and biological diversity loss have prompted public outcry. Concerns have since grown to include other forest types as well. The Congress has considered a variety of legislation to stem the tide of increasing deforestation and the United States has supported a number of bilateral and multilateral initiatives to assist other countries in managing their forest resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs35/
The Delaney Clause: The Dilemma of Regulating Health Risk for Pesticide Residues
Under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for establishing tolerances for pesticide residues in or on foods and feeds. Tolerances are legal limits to the amount of pesticide residues that can be found on a raw agricultural commodity at the farm gate or in a processed food. The FFDCA has two sections, 408 and 409, which set up different and inconsistent criteria for setting tolerances for pesticide residues in foods. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs27/
The Economics of Agricultural Policy
An English Act of 1663 imposed a duty on grain imported from abroad whenever the domestic price was below a legislatively set price floor. The English farmer enjoyed a virtual monopoly in the domestic market. By the same token, he was allowed to export grain whenever the domestic price exceeded the price floor, and, after 1673, was granted a bounty (subsidy) on grain exports. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs21/
Environmental Equity
More than 20 years of Federal pollution control programs notwithstanding, growing perception that minority and low-income communities remain at disproportionately high risk of exposure to toxic pollutants is focusing attention on "environmental equity" issues. Federal legislation has been introduced to ensure equal protection of environmental quality and public health. Equity legislation is opposed by people who are skeptical of its long-term prospects and believe that there is insufficient evidence of discrimination and that some inequities are inevitable in a free-market economy. Both sides agree there is a need to collect and analyze data on public health and exposure to environmental hazards and to compare health risks among racial and socio-economic groups. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs26/
The European Community - Japan Automobile Agreement
The European Community (EC) and Japan reached an agreement on trade in automobiles in July 1991. The agreement restricts exports of automobiles from Japan to the EC to 1.23 million cars per year until the end of 1999. The Commission of the European Communities estimates that Japanese transplant production in the EC will amount to 1.2 million cars per year in 1999. The Japanese appear to concur with this estimate but do not agree that it constitutes a cap on transplant investment or production. Whether the agreement covers the export of U.S.-built Japanese transplants to the EC is unclear. If the agreement covers, or has the effect of discouraging, such exports, it would be a cause for concern for U.S. policymakers. U.S. trade officials have reportedly discussed the issue with Japanese counterparts. It is unknown whether U.S. concerns have been addressed to European Community (EC) officials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs40/
H.R. 5100: Major Trade Legislation of the 102d Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs41/
Japan and an East Asian Trading Bloc
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs37/
Japan-Taiwan Economic Relations: Implications for the U.S.
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs29/
Japan-U.S. Economic Relations: Selected References
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8718/
Japan-U.S. Economic Relations: Selected References
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs31/
Japan-U.S. Relations in a Post-Cold War Environment: Emerging Trends and Issues for U.S. Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs28/
Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress in the 1990s
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs32/
Japanese Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs24/
Japanese-U.S. Trade Relations: Cooperation or Confrontation?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs42/
Japan's Science and Technology Strategies and Policies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs36/
July 1992 Japanese Elections
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs25/
The Listing of a Species: Legal Definition and Biological Realities
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs23/
Medicaid: Recent Trends in Beneficiaries and Spending
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8174/
National Wildlife Refuges: Places to Hunt?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs22/
The U.S.-EC Japan Trade Triangle
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