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 Decade: 1980-1989
 Year: 1981
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Abortion: Judicial and Legislative Control

Abortion: Judicial and Legislative Control

Date: October 13, 1981
Creator: Lewis, Karen J.; Rosenberg, Morton & Porter, Allison I.
Description: In 1973 the U.S. Supreme Court held that the Constitution protects a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy, Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, and that a State may not unduly burden the exercise of that fundamental right by regulations that prohibit or substantially limit access to the means of effectuating that decision, Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179. But rather than settling the issue, the Court's rulings have kindled heated debate and precipitated a variety of governmental actions at the national, State and local levels designed either to nullify the rulings or hinder their effectuation. This brief discusses this ongoing issue, including related legislation and judicial history.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Assessing the Options for Preserving ICBM Survivability

Assessing the Options for Preserving ICBM Survivability

Date: September 28, 1981
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan
Description: The decision on how to redress the perceived vulnerability of U.S. intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMS) is the most controversial strategic nuclear weapon decision now facing the 97th Congress. A full-scale debate on this issue, especially as regards MX missile basing, seems certain. To assist Members of Congress in the debate, this paper discusses nine proposals for treating ICBM survivability: Recognize that ICBMs are invulnerable, rely only on bombers and submarines for deterrence, deploy a large or scaled-down shell-game multiple shelter system, defend MX with anti ballistic missiles, launch ICBMs on warning of attack, deploy MX on aircraft or small submarines, and diversify strategic forces, perhaps using small ICBMs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Balanced Budget and Spending Limitations: Proposed Constitutional Amendments in the 97th Congress

Balanced Budget and Spending Limitations: Proposed Constitutional Amendments in the 97th Congress

Date: April 3, 1981
Creator: Schick, Allen & Strickland, Daniel P
Description: Expenditures and revenue limitation proposals link Federal spending and taxation to some measure of economic performance, such as the rate of economic growth or percentage levels of GNP or national income. The report presents this issue brief reviews, the various approaches to balance the budget and to impose spending limitations offered as constitutional amendments’ in the 97 congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biotechnology: Commercialization of Academic Research

Biotechnology: Commercialization of Academic Research

Date: October 26, 1981
Creator: Johnson, Judith A
Description: This report provides an overview of the commercialization of academic research h in the field of biotechnology. It offers a brief definition, background and policy analysis, as well as legislation and hearings regarding the topic.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Block Grants

Block Grants

Date: August 31, 1981
Creator: Osbourn, Sandra S
Description: This report includes the material on block grants, including a CRS Report on the Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1981, several articles, and a guide to State block grant implementation. For additional information and assistance, we have also included addresses of people to contact on the Federal (p. 59) and State levels (p. 70-104).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Bomber Options for Replacing B52s

Bomber Options for Replacing B52s

Date: June 17, 1981
Creator: Mitchell, Douglas D
Description: One of the main issues discussed in this report is the replacement of the B-52 bombers, due to the fact that many believe that by 1990, the B-52's vulnerability to improving Soviet air defenses will imperil its effectiveness as a penetrating bomber.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Busing for School Desegregation: The Debate on Selected Issues

Busing for School Desegregation: The Debate on Selected Issues

Date: April 30, 1981
Creator: Stedman, James B
Description: This paper explores selected questions involving the busing of elementary and secondary school students for desegregation. On each of the selected questions a general analysis of the issue involved is presented, followed by two subsections entitled A Critic's Position and An Advocate's Position. In these subsections, an attempt is made to show how a critic of busing for desegregation and an advocate of such busing might fashion arguments on this issue in opposition to, or in support of, busing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Chemical Warfare: A Primer on Agents, Munitions, and Defensive Measures

Chemical Warfare: A Primer on Agents, Munitions, and Defensive Measures

Date: April 27, 1981
Creator: Kallis, E.M.
Description: The recent Department of Defense proposal to develop a capability to modernize and expand the current U.S. chemical warfare munition stocks with binary nerve agent munitions has focused attention on the subject of chemical warfare. This paper provides a brief introductory discussion of modern chemical warfare, describing the types of agents, delivery methods, and defense against chemical agents. It does not discuss policy, strategy, tactics, or disarmament aspects of chemical warfare. These issues w i l l be covered i n CRS Issue Brief IB 8l08l .
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China-U.S.-Soviet Relations

China-U.S.-Soviet Relations

Date: December 3, 1981
Creator: Sutter, Robert G
Description: In 1979, a time of clear downturn in U.S.-Soviet relations over such sensitive issues as SALT, Soviet troops in Cuba, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the Carter Administration moved ahead with a series of measures designed to improve relations with Moscow's major adversary in Asia, the Peoples Republic of China (P.R.C.). The purpose of this report is to provide background for and summarize current developments in U.S. - People’s Republic of China (PRC) relations, including current and pending congressional actions involving the PRC.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China-U.S. Trade

China-U.S. Trade

Date: November 19, 1981
Creator: Holliday, George D & Hardt, John P
Description: The improved political relationship between the United States and the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.), initiated by the Nixon Administration and furthered by the Carter Administration's decision to establish diplomatic relations, has spurred a rapid increase in Sino-U.S. trade. While still small relative to overall U.S. foreign trade, the volume of trade represents an abrupt shift from the no-trade policy that had been pursued since 1950. Despite the rapid expansion, outstanding issues remain as serious barriers to normalized trade. Resolution of those issues may require concession or accommodations by the Chinese leadership as well as action by both the U.S. Congress and the Executive Branch. However, the development of a new approach to foreign economic relations by the post-Mao Chinese leadership and the establishment of diplomatic relations have laid the ground work for a further expansion of commercial relations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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