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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2004
 Month: May
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Administrative Separations for Misconduct: An Alternative or Companion to Military Courts-Martial

Administrative Separations for Misconduct: An Alternative or Companion to Military Courts-Martial

Date: May 26, 2004
Creator: Velez Pollack, Estela I.
Description: The recent reports of abuse of prisoners held by U.S. military personnel have raised questions about how the armed forces control servicemembers. Congress, under the authorities vested in it by the U.S. Constitution, has enacted procedures for addressing misconduct by servicemembers. One such procedure is an administrative separation under which a member’s continued suitability for service is determined. Administrative separations are non-punitive and can be initiated for a number of reasons, including misconduct or criminal offenses. They may be used in place of or after the servicemember has been subject to a court-martial or nonjudicial punishment. This report provides an overview of administrative separations as an alternative or companion to courts-martial.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture as a Source of Barge Demand on the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers: Background and Issues

Agriculture as a Source of Barge Demand on the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers: Background and Issues

Date: May 26, 2004
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report provides background on the linkage between U.S. agriculture and the UMR-IWW navigation system. In addition, it explores several of the key issues and uncertainties behind evolving trade patterns and projections for future agricultural freight traffic on the UMR-IWW navigation system.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
AIDS in Africa

AIDS in Africa

Date: May 28, 2004
Creator: Copson, Raymond W
Description: Sub-Saharan Africa has been far more severely affected by AIDS than any other part of the world. The United Nations reports that 26.6 million adults and children are infected with the HIV virus in the region, which has about 10% of the world's population but more than two-thirds of the worldwide total of infected people. This report discusses this issue in detail, including the cause of the African AIDS epidemic, the social and economic consequences, response and treatment, and U.S. policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Force Aerial Refueling

Air Force Aerial Refueling

Date: May 4, 2004
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: Aerial refueling aircraft are key to military air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is numerous and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. The Air Force’s proposal to lease 100 Boeing 767 aircraft to replace it’s KC-135E fleet is controversial.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Force FB-22 Bomber Concept

Air Force FB-22 Bomber Concept

Date: May 26, 2004
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Description: The Air Force has expressed interest in developing a bomber variant of the F/A-22 Raptor to “bridge the gap” between today’s bombers and a follow-on bomber in 2037. Questions exist regarding the FB-22’s feasibility, cost, and combat potential.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Association Health Plans, Health Marts and the Small Group Market for Health Insurance

Association Health Plans, Health Marts and the Small Group Market for Health Insurance

Date: May 10, 2004
Creator: Hearne, Jean P
Description: An estimated 41.2 million people were without health insurance in 2001. Legislation under consideration by the 108th and earlier Congresses is intended to assist small employers in offering health insurance as a benefit to their workers. A new bill, H.R. 4281, introduced on May 5, 2004, The Small Business Health Fairness Act of 2003 (H.R. 6601s. 545), and a number of bills from the earlier Congresses include provisions creating new groups for small firms to join or encouraging the growth of existing groups so that small employers can band together to offer coverage to their employees.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: May 18, 2004
Creator: Seghetti, Lisa M
Description: This report provides background information on the main immigration-related border security issues that have been raised as a result of the terrorist attacks and resulting concern for homeland security. It describes enacted legislation in the 107th Congress as well as in previous Congresses that focus on immigration-related border security issues. The report also poses possible immigration-related border security issues the 108th Congress may consider.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Border Security: Inspections Practices, Policies, and Issues

Border Security: Inspections Practices, Policies, and Issues

Date: May 26, 2004
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen; Lake, Jennifer E; Seghetti, Lisa M; Monke, James & Viña, Stephen R
Description: Some argue that this reorganization of border inspections has been long needed and is resulting in a more streamlined and efficient set of procedures at the border with a clear, single, chain of command. Others warn that the different types of inspections are quite complex in their own right and that the reorganization is exacerbating the conflicting priorities at the border, ultimately resulting in many more people and goods being sent to secondary inspections. This report, which will not be updated, discusses a range of legal, administrative, and policy issues that are emerging with the implementation of the unified border inspections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

Date: May 20, 2004
Creator: Kan, Shirley A
Description: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the national interest in reducing the role of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. China has taken some steps to mollify U.S. concerns about its role in weapons proliferation. Skeptics question whether China's cooperation in weapons nonproliferation has warranted President Bush's pursuit of stronger bilateral ties. This report discusses the national security problem of China's role in weapons proliferation and issues related to the U.S. policy response, including legislation, since the mid-1990s.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Copyright Law: Digital Rights Management Legislation

Copyright Law: Digital Rights Management Legislation

Date: May 28, 2004
Creator: Jeweler, Robin
Description: Digital Rights Management (DRM) refers to the technology that copyright owners use to protect digital media. This report surveys several of the DRM bills that were introduced in the 107th Congress and those that are pending in the 108th Congress. Generally, the bills are directed at two separate goals. One goal is to increase access to digitally-protected media for lawful purposes. The other attempts to thwart digital piracy and would do so by enhancing civil and criminal sanctions for digital (and traditional) copyright infringement and educating the public about the rights of copyright holders.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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