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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2009
 Month: April
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E): Background, Status, and Selected Issues for Congress

Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E): Background, Status, and Selected Issues for Congress

Date: April 29, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report discusses the establishment of the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E) within the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69), which was authorized by Congress in August 2007. Modeled on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), ARPA-E would support transformational energy technology research projects with the goal of enhancing the nation's economic and energy security.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

Date: April 21, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: The Afghan central government's limited writ and widespread official corruption are helping sustain a Taliban insurgency, and have fed pessimism about the Afghanistan stabilization effort. President Hamid Karzai is working with U.S. and international donors on how to improve governance and delivery of public services, and on winning re-election in presidential elections slated for August 20, 2009. Many agree that the country has made substantial progress on personal and political freedoms since the fall of the Taliban regime. Over the past year U.S. officials have been shifting away from reliance on building the central government and toward promoting local governing bodies and security initiatives as a complement to efforts to build central government capabilities. The United States will increase economic development efforts, and develop benchmarks with which to judge the performance and legitimacy of the Afghan government, including its efforts to curb official corruption.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
America COMPETES Act: Programs, Funding, and Selected Issues

America COMPETES Act: Programs, Funding, and Selected Issues

Date: April 17, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report explores and describes in detail the America COMPETES Act (P.K. 110-69), which became law on August 9, 2007. The act responds to concerns that the United States may not be able to compete economically with other nations in the future due to insufficient investment today in science and technology research and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and workforce development. This report explains the aims and design of the America COMPETES Act, what funding developments the act authorizes, what education activities the act involves, and related legislation and government programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Controversies over Redefining “Fill Material” Under the Clean Water Act

Controversies over Redefining “Fill Material” Under the Clean Water Act

Date: April 20, 2009
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the Clean Water Act that contains two different permitting regimes: (1) Section 402 permits (called the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, or NPDES, permit program) address the discharge of most pollutants, and (2) Section 404 permits address the discharge of dredged or fill material into navigable waters of the United States at specified sites. These permit programs differ in nature and approach.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Direct Overt U.S. Aid and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2009

Direct Overt U.S. Aid and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2009

Date: April 20, 2009
Creator: Kronstadt, K. Alan
Description: Aid and military reimbursements made to Pakistan from 2002-2009. The list is divided by agency.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSR): Program Overview and Issues

Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSR): Program Overview and Issues

Date: April 10, 2009
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1996, which authorized a drinking water state revolving loan fund (DWSRF) program. The program was intended to help public water systems finance infrastructure projects that were needed to comply with federal drinking water regulations and to meet the Act's health objectives. It includes an overview of funding, allotments and set-asides, drinking water infrastructure needs, program issues, and legislative activity.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 111th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices

The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 111th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices

Date: April 10, 2009
Creator: Buck, Eugene H. & Corn, M. L.
Description: This report discusses oversight issues and legislation introduced in the 111th Congress to address specific concerns related to how The Endangered Species Act (ESA) is implemented and how endangered and threatened species are managed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Tort Claims Act

Federal Tort Claims Act

Date: April 27, 2009
Creator: Cohen, Henry & Cohen, Henry
Description: The Federal Tort Claims Act is the statute by which the United States authorizes tort suits to be brought against itself. With exceptions, it makes the United States liable for injuries caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission of any federal employee acting within the scope of his employment, in accordance with the law of the state where the act or omission occurred. This report discusses, among other things, the application of the Feres doctrine to suits for injuries caused by medical malpractice in the military, the prohibition of suits by victims of atomic testing, Supreme Court cases interpreting the discretionary function exception, the extent to which federal employees may be held liable for torts they commit in the scope of their employment, and the government contractor defense to products liability design defect suits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fifth Summit of the Americas, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, April 2009: Background, Agenda, and Expectations

Fifth Summit of the Americas, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, April 2009: Background, Agenda, and Expectations

Date: April 9, 2009
Creator: Meyer, Peter J.
Description: The fifth Summit of the Americas in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, which is scheduled to be held April 17-19, 2009, will be the first hemispheric forum for President Barack Obama to engage with leaders from across Latin America and the Caribbean. The Port of Spain Summit will also be the first meeting of all 34 democratic heads of government from Latin America, the Caribbean, Canada, and the United States since the contentious 2005 Summit in Mar del Plata, Argentina. Taking place less than four months after the U.S. presidential inauguration, the Summit could set the tone for hemispheric relations during the early stages of the Obama Administration. This report will be updated following the Summit.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Issues in the 111th Congress

Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Issues in the 111th Congress

Date: April 10, 2009
Creator: Buck, Eugene H. & Upton, Harold F.
Description: This report discusses many federal laws and regulations regarding fish and marine mammals that are important resources in open ocean and nearshore coastal areas. These lows and regulations guide their management as well as the management of their habitat.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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