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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Month: February
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Nanotechnology and Environmental, Health, and Safety: Issues for Consideration

Nanotechnology and Environmental, Health, and Safety: Issues for Consideration

Date: February 9, 2009
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Description: This report identifies the potential environmental, health, and safety opportunities and challenges of nanotechnology; explains the importance of addressing nanotechnology EHS concerns; identifies and discusses nanotechnology EHS issues; and summarizes options for Congressional action, including the nanotechnology EHS-related provisions of selected legislation. The report also includes two appendices.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Issues in the 108th Congress

Environmental Protection Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: February 24, 2003
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R & Isler, Margaret M
Description: The 108th Congress has acted on a variety of disparate environmental measures; some of these represent proposals or issues that had been under consideration in the 107th Congress and earlier. Environmental issues considered by Congress tend to fall into several major categories: (1) funding issues — whether funding levels are adequate and focused on appropriate priorities; (2) expanding, renewing, or refocusing specific environment programs; (3) environmental issues that are important “subsets” of other major areas of concern, such as energy, defense, or transportation programs; and more recently, (4) terrorism and infrastructure protection in areas such as wastewater and chemical facilities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Open Ocean Aquaculture

Open Ocean Aquaculture

Date: February 12, 2008
Creator: Upton, Harold F. & Buck, Eugene H.
Description: This report discusses four general areas related to open ocean aquaculture: (1) operational and business-related challenges; (2) potential economic impacts; (3) potential environmental impacts; and (4) the legal and regulatory environment. It summarizes recent executive and legislative branch actions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of Proposed Changes and Impacts on Agriculture

EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program: Highlights of Proposed Changes and Impacts on Agriculture

Date: February 3, 2000
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: In August 1999 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed regulations to clarify and strengthen the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. Section 303(d) requires states to identify surface waters for which wastewater discharge limits are not stringent enough to achieve water quality standards and to allocate further required pollutant reductions among sources in order to attain those standards. This report discusses the major changes in EPA's proposals, compared with existing regulatory program requirements, and potential impacts on agriculture and forestry sources, which have been controversial.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Date: February 22, 2006
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a continuing issue in the 109th Congress. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research to comprehensive emissions cap-and-trade programs. Additional bills focus on GHG reporting and registries, or on power plant emissions of carbon dioxide, as part of wider controls on pollutant emissions. The bills vary in their approaches to climate change issues. This report briefly discusses the basic concepts on which these bills are based and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, technology deployment, GHG reporting and registries, and emissions reduction programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture: Status and Current Issues

Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture: Status and Current Issues

Date: February 11, 2009
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S. & Cowan, Tadlock
Description: This report describes several scientifically emerging animal biotechnologies that are raising a variety of questions concerning risks to humans, animals, and the environment, as well as ethical concerns. The report examines applications of the technologies and discusses major issues that may arise.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress

Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress

Date: February 10, 2006
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: The courts and the executive branch face major decisions on clean air issues in 2006, with Congress more likely playing an oversight role. One focus is EPA's Jan. 17 2006 proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles, which are estimated to cause tens of thousands of premature deaths annually. Whether the proposal is supported by the available science and what impact its implementation would have have likely issues of concern. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Agency: Highlights of the President's FY2007 Request

Environmental Protection Agency: Highlights of the President's FY2007 Request

Date: February 21, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M & Esworthy, Robert
Description: Title II of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-54, H.R. 2361) provides $7.73 billion for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), subject to an across-the-board rescission of 0.476%. Section 439 of Title IV indicates that the rescission is to be applied proportionately among each account, program, project, and activity specified in the law, accompanying reports, and the President’s budget request. The total FY2006 EPA appropriation includes an additional $80 million in unobligated funds “rescinded” from past appropriations, as noted in the following table. P.L. 109-54 provides more funding for EPA than the Administration’s FY2006 request of $7.52 billion, but less than the FY2005 appropriation of $8.03 billion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Environmental Policy Act: Background and Implementation

The National Environmental Policy Act: Background and Implementation

Date: February 29, 2008
Creator: Luther, Linda
Description: This report discusses the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) including its history, its provisions, and the evolution of its implementation; it also provides an overview of how agencies implement NEPA's requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress

Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress

Date: February 23, 2001
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: In the 106th Congress, no comprehensive activity on reauthorizing the Clean Water Act occurred, although a number of individual clean water bills were enacted. Other issues have been debated recently, such as reforming the law to provide regulatory relief for industry, states and cities, and individual landowners. The debate over many of these issues highlights differing views of the Act and its implementation by some who seek to strengthen existing requirements and others who believe that costs and benefits should be more carefully weighed before additional control programs are mandated.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues in the 107th Congress

Clean Air Act Issues in the 107th Congress

Date: February 4, 2003
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: In the 107th Congress, the most prominent air quality issue has been whether state and federal regulations designed to protect air quality are having a negative impact on energy production, and, if so, whether legislation should be enacted to reform such regulations. The early discussion focused primarily on California, but with the release of the Administration’s energy policy recommendations in May 2001 and subsequent congressional action, attention shifted to issues more national in scope.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture Biotechnology: Background and Recent Issues

Agriculture Biotechnology: Background and Recent Issues

Date: February 13, 2009
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock & Becker, Geoffrey S.
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the impacts of GE crops on the environment and food safety, and whether GE foods should be specially labeled. Underlying these issues is the question of whether U.S. regulation and oversight of biotechnology—with responsibilities spread primarily among the U.S.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Polar Bears: Proposed Listing Under the Endangered Species Act

Polar Bears: Proposed Listing Under the Endangered Species Act

Date: February 15, 2008
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Description: This report discusses the polar bear status and they are affected by climate change, contaminants, and subsistence and sport hunting.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 11th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices

The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 11th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices

Date: February 25, 2009
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Corn, M. L.; Sheikh, Pervaze A.; Meltz, Robert & Alexander, Kristina
Description: This report discusses U.S. policy toward global climate change, which evolved from a "study only" to a more "study and action" orientation in 1992 with ratification of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: February 25, 2003
Creator: Justus, John R & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses the effect of human activities on global climate change. Human activities, particularly burning of fossil fuels, have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other trace gases, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, and nitrous oxide.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress

Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress

Date: February 22, 2005
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report provides background and analysis on several issues related to the Clean Air Act, including: Clear Skies / Multi-Pollutant Legislation, Mercury from Power Plants, New Source Review (NSR), MTBE and Ethanol, Ozone Nonattainment Area Deadlines, and Conformity of Transportation Plans and SIPs. It also discusses the most recent developments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act: A Summary of the Act and Its Major Requirements

Clean Air Act: A Summary of the Act and Its Major Requirements

Date: February 15, 2007
Creator: McCarthy, James E.; Copeland, Claudia; Parker, Larry & Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report summarizes the Clean Air Act and its major regulatory requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Develpoments and Issues

Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Develpoments and Issues

Date: February 7, 2005
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the arsenic’s health effects and how to reduce the uncertainty in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the current standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb) in 1975. . This report reviews EPA efforts to develop a new arsenic rule and summarizes key provisions and subsequent events.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol

Date: February 16, 2005
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)

Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)

Date: February 7, 2008
Creator: Folger, Peter
Description: This report discusses carbon capture and sequestration (CSS), but not other types of carbon sequestration activities whereby CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored in vegetation, soils, or oceans.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation

Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation

Date: February 6, 2003
Creator: Bearden, David M & Luther, Linda G
Description: This report describes the environmental documents required for highway projects, discusses the average amount of time to complete this documentation, summarizes the environmental streamlining provisions under TEA-21, and examines administrative and legislative actions taken to implement these requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: A Primer

Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: A Primer

Date: February 2, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report focuses on the environmental quality of water resources as affected by animal agriculture, specifically animal waste, which can harm water quality through surface runoff, direct discharges, spills, and leaching into soil and groundwater. This report also discusses the contribution of emissions from animal feeding operations (AFO), enterprises where animals are raised in confinement, to air pollution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues

National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues

Date: February 26, 2002
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects

Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects

Date: February 10, 2006
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Description: This report identifies the array of climate-relevant human health research and discusses the interconnections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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