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  Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
 Country: Russia
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics: Security and Human Rights Issues
This report discusses the security and human rights issues at 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276887/
Afghanistan: Connections to Islamic Movements In Central and South Asia and Southern Russia
After several years of relative peace in Central Asia and southern Russia, Islamic extremist movements have become more active in Russia and in Central and South Asia, threatening stability in the region. Although numerous factors might account for the upsurge in activity, several of these movements appear to have connections to the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban regime in Afghanistan. These linkages raise questions about whether the United States, as part of a broader effort to promote peace and stability in the region, should continue to engage the Taliban regime, or strongly confront it. This report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7705/
Afghanistan: Soviet Invasion and U.S. Response
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan has raised a number of serious issues and choices for the United States. The train of events seem likely to have an important influence on overall American foreign policy in the 1980s. Reassessment of Soviet motives and of U.S. roles in the world are already in progress. Emerging American attitudes, in turn, will shape more specific policy decisions on several issues, which this issue brief discusses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8151/
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Vladivostok, Russia: A Preview
Russia will host the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation's (APEC) week-long series of senior-level meetings in Vladivostok on September 2-9, 2012. The main event for the week will be the 20th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting to be held September 8-9, 2012. This report looks at the main points of this meeting as they relate to the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122240/
China-U.S.-Soviet Relations
In 1979, a time of clear downturn in U.S.-Soviet relations over such sensitive issues as SALT, Soviet troops in Cuba, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the Carter Administration moved ahead with a series of measures designed to improve relations with Moscow's major adversary in Asia, the Peoples Republic of China (P.R.C.). The purpose of this report is to provide background for and summarize current developments in U.S. - People’s Republic of China (PRC) relations, including current and pending congressional actions involving the PRC. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8496/
Commercial Relations with Russia: Prospects for a Common United States-Japanese Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs30/
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments
This report provides a brief history and recent developments regarding the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT). The U.N. General Assembly adopted the CTBT in 1996. The report discusses the national positions on testing and the CTBT, The North Korean nuclear test, stockpile stewardship, and CTBT pros and cons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94057/
Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests
U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10405/
Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests
U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9885/
Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests
U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9553/
Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests
U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6290/
Enlargement in Central Europe
In December 1994, NATO members will begin the process of debating possible criteria for new members from Central Europe. Alliance relations with Russia will be a central factor determining the outcome of the debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26059/
Europe's Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification
This report focuses on potential approaches that Europe might employ to diversify its sources of natural gas supply, Russia's role in Europe's natural gas policies, and key factors that could hinder efforts to develop alternative suppliers of natural gas. The report assesses the potential suppliers of natural gas to Europe and the short- to medium-term hurdles needed to be overcome for those suppliers to be credible, long-term providers of natural gas to Europe. The report looks at North Africa, potentially the most realistic supply alternative in the near term, but notes that the region will have to resolve its current political, economic, and security instability as well as the internal structural changes to the natural gas industry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227749/
Europe's Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification
This report focuses on potential approaches that Europe might employ to diversify its sources of natural gas supply, and Russia's role, as well as identifying some of the issues hindering efforts to develop alternative suppliers of natural gas. The report assesses the potential suppliers of natural gas to Europe and the short- to medium-term hurdles needed to be overcome for those suppliers to be credible, long-term providers of natural gas to Europe. The report looks at North Africa and Central Asia as possible sources of future energy supply. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86605/
The Evolution of Cooperative Threat Reduction: Issues for Congress
This report provides information on the wide range of programs that the United States is pursuing to secure and eliminate nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and materials and to prevent hostile nations and terrorist organizations from gaining access to these weapons or the knowledge and materials needed to manufacture and use them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227883/
The Former Soviet Union and U.S. Foreign Aid: Implementing the Assistance Program, 1992-1994
In fiscal year 1994, the new states of the former Soviet Union became collectively the second largest recipient of U.S. foreign assistance made available from all sources. Whether and how the assistance program is helping to bring about democratic systems and free market economies is increasingly a question of interest to Congress and the public at large. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26073/
The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress
This report discusses the G-20, an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies among major advanced and emerging economies. Previous summits have, for example, focused on financial regulatory reform, global imbalances, funding for the International Monetary Fund (IMF), voting power of emerging economies in international financial institutions, and fossil fuel subsidies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272004/
The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress
This report discusses the background of the G-20 (an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies) and some of the issues that it has addressed. It includes historic background on the work of the G-20, information about how the group operates, overviews of G-20 summits, major issues that the group is likely to address and the likely effectiveness of the G-20 in the near future. The members of the G-20 include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99014/
The G-20 and International Economic Cooperation: Background and Implications for Congress
This report discusses the background of the G-20 (an international forum for discussing and coordinating economic policies) and some of the issues that it has addressed. It includes historic background on the work of the G-20, information about how the group operates, overviews of G-20 summits, major issues that the group is likely to address and the likely effectiveness of the G-20 in the near future. The members of the G-20 include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267832/
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)
This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. This report discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996. This report also discusses U.S. concerns that other nations, e.g., U.S. allies, Russia, and China, are not as strict with their economic sanctions against Iran, and how U.S. policymakers are combating this reticence with various pieces of legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26309/
Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objectives in the Middle East. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103196/
Kosovo's Independence and U.S. Policy
On February 17, 2008, Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia. On February 18, the United States recognized Kosovo as an independent state. Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and most other European Union countries have also recognized Kosovo. Serbia and Russia have heatedly objected to the recognition of Kosovo's independence. Independent Kosovo faces many challenges, including its relations with Serbia and Serbs in Kosovo, as well as weak institutions and an underdeveloped economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10602/
Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Plant and Plutonium Disposition: Management and Policy Issues
This report discusses the control of surplus nuclear weapons material that became an urgent U.S. foreign policy goal with the end of the Cold War and breakup of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284517/
Moldova: Basic Facts
Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union June 1940, and regained its independence on August 27, 1991. Shortly thereafter, Moldova faced challenges from Turkic-speaking Gagauz and ethnic Russians, both residing in Moldova's Dniestr valley, who proclaimed separatist "republics." Other challenges facing Moldovans include pursuing economic reform and choosing between potential reunification with their ethnic cohorts in Romania and forging an independent identity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26086/
Monitoring and Verification in Arms Control
This report reviews some of the monitoring and verification provisions in the new START Treaty between the U.S. and Russia and compares these with some of the provisions in the original START Treaty. It focuses, specifically, on differences between the treaties in the provisions governing the exchange of data, known as telemetry, generated during missile flight tests; provisions governing the monitoring of mobile intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs); and differences in the numbers and types of on-site inspections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103092/
National Missile Defense: Russia's Reaction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2062/
National Missile Defense: Russia's Reaction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3665/
NATO Enlargement and Russia
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs610/
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
The United States and Russia signed a new strategic arms reduction treaty - known as New START - on April 8, 2010. This treaty is designed to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START), which expired, after 15 years of implementation, on December 5, 2009. This report provides an overview of New START, including a comparison to the original START Treaty, the belief of the Obama Administration and outside analysts that New START will enhance U.S. national security, and the criticisms of those who say that New START (and, indeed, the entire issue of U.S.-Russian arms control) is a distraction from more important items on the nonproliferation agenda. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31358/
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
The United States and Russia signed a new strategic arms reduction treaty - known as New START - on April 8, 2010. This treaty is designed to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START), which expired, after 15 years of implementation, on December 5, 2009. This report provides an overview of New START, including a comparison to the original START Treaty, the belief of the Obama Administration and outside analysts that New START will enhance U.S. national security, and the criticisms of those who say that New START (and, indeed, the entire issue of U.S.-Russian arms control) is a distraction from more important items on the nonproliferation agenda. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83944/
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
The United States and Russia signed a new strategic arms reduction treaty - known as New START - on April 8, 2010. This treaty is designed to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START), which expired, after 15 years of implementation, on December 5, 2009. This report provides an overview of New START, including a comparison to the original START Treaty, the belief of the Obama Administration and outside analysts that New START will enhance U.S. national security, and the criticisms of those who say that New START (and, indeed, the entire issue of U.S.-Russian arms control) is a distraction from more important items on the nonproliferation agenda. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83945/
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
The United States and Russia signed a new strategic arms reduction treaty - known as New START - on April 8, 2010. This treaty is designed to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START), which expired, after 15 years of implementation, on December 5, 2009. This report provides an overview of New START, including a comparison to the original START Treaty, the belief of the Obama Administration and outside analysts that New START will enhance U.S. national security, and the criticisms of those who say that New START (and, indeed, the entire issue of U.S.-Russian arms control) is a distraction from more important items on the nonproliferation agenda. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40097/
Next Steps in Nuclear Arms Control with Russia: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the role of nuclear arms control in the U.S.-Soviet relationship, bilateral treaties and unilateral steps the United States took to alter its nuclear posture, and the role of arms control in the U.S.- Russian relationship. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276874/
Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union
Congress passed the Nunn-Lugar amendment, authorizing U.S. threat reduction assistance to the former Soviet Union, in November 1991, after a failed coup in Moscow and the disintegration of the Soviet Union raised concerns about the safety and security of Soviet nuclear weapons. It has evolved from an emergency response to impending chaos in the Soviet Union, to a more comprehensive threat reduction and nonproliferation effort, to a broader program seeking to keep nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons from leaking out of the former Soviet Union and into the hands of rogue nations or terrorist groups, to a global program to address the threat of weapons of mass destruction. Analysts have debated numerous issues related to U.S. nonproliferation and threat reduction assistance. These include questions about the coordination of and priority given to these programs in the U.S. government, questions about Russia's willingness to provide the United States with access to its weapons facilities, questions about the President's ability to waive certification requirements so that the programs can go forward, and questions about the need to expand the efforts into a global program that receives funding from numerous nations and possibly extends assistance to others outside the former Soviet Union. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85445/
Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons
During the Senate debate on the new U.S.-Russian Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) in 2010, many Senators raised questions about Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons and noted their absence from the treaty limits. The United States and Russia have not included limits on these weapons in past arms control agreements. Nevertheless, Congress may press the Administration to seek solutions to the potential risks presented by these weapons in the future. This report looks at issues for Congress to consider regarding US weapons policy in light of the START agreement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87286/
Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons
This report provides basic information about U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons. It begins with a brief discussion of how these weapons have appeared in public debates in the past few decades, then summarizes the differences between strategic and nonstrategic nuclear weapons. It then provides some historical background, describing the numbers and types of nonstrategic nuclear weapons deployed by both nations during the Cold War and in the past decade; the policies that guided the deployment and prospective use of these weapons; and the measures that the two sides have taken to reduce and contain their forces. The report reviews the issues that have been raised with regard to U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons, and summarizes a number of policy options that might be explored by Congress, the United States, Russia, and other nations to address these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272089/
Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons
This report provides basic information about U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons, including history, security issues, and policy options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103174/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
On May 24, 2002, President Bush and Russia's President Putin signed the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (known as the Treaty of Moscow) that will reduce strategic nuclear weapons to between 1,700 and 2,200 warheads by December 31, 2012. Russia convinced the United States to sign a legally binding treaty, but the United States rejected any limits and counting rules that would require the elimination of delivery vehicles and warheads removed from service. It wanted the flexibility to reduce its forces at its own pace, and to restore warheads to deployed forces if conditions warranted. Russian officials have hailed the success of Russia's diplomacy in convincing the United States to sign a legally binding Treaty that casts Russia as an equal partner in the arms control process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10461/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
Report that provides background information regarding the Nuclear Arms Control negotiations between U.S. and Russia. Articles of the Treaty of Moscow and force structures under this treaty are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227973/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
This report provides background information regarding the Nuclear Arms Control negotiations between U.S. and Russia. Articles of the Treaty of Moscow and force structures under this treaty are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103159/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
This report provides background information regarding the Nuclear Arms Control negotiations between U.S. and Russia. In addition it discusses treaties, the content and form of the agreements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93962/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5674/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5676/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5673/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5675/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5672/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5671/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5677/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2057/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2056/
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