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 Country: Russia
 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments
This report provides a brief history and recent developments regarding the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT). The U.N. General Assembly adopted the CTBT in 1996. The report discusses the national positions on testing and the CTBT, The North Korean nuclear test, stockpile stewardship, and CTBT pros and cons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94057/
Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests
U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10405/
Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests
U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9885/
Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests
U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9553/
Democracy in Russia: Trends and Implications for U.S. Interests
U.S. attention has focused on Russia's fitful democratization since Russia emerged in 1991 from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many observers have argued that a democratic Russia with free markets would be a cooperative bilateral and multilateral partner rather than an insular and hostile national security threat. President Putin's 2004 proposal to restructure the government has been supported by international observers. The U.S. Administration and Congress have welcomed some cooperation with Russia on vital U.S. national security concerns, including the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, among other issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6290/
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)
This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. This report discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996. This report also discusses U.S. concerns that other nations, e.g., U.S. allies, Russia, and China, are not as strict with their economic sanctions against Iran, and how U.S. policymakers are combating this reticence with various pieces of legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26309/
Kosovo's Independence and U.S. Policy
On February 17, 2008, Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia. On February 18, the United States recognized Kosovo as an independent state. Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and most other European Union countries have also recognized Kosovo. Serbia and Russia have heatedly objected to the recognition of Kosovo's independence. Independent Kosovo faces many challenges, including its relations with Serbia and Serbs in Kosovo, as well as weak institutions and an underdeveloped economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10602/
Moldova: Basic Facts
Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union June 1940, and regained its independence on August 27, 1991. Shortly thereafter, Moldova faced challenges from Turkic-speaking Gagauz and ethnic Russians, both residing in Moldova's Dniestr valley, who proclaimed separatist "republics." Other challenges facing Moldovans include pursuing economic reform and choosing between potential reunification with their ethnic cohorts in Romania and forging an independent identity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26086/
National Missile Defense: Russia's Reaction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2062/
National Missile Defense: Russia's Reaction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3665/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
On May 24, 2002, President Bush and Russia's President Putin signed the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (known as the Treaty of Moscow) that will reduce strategic nuclear weapons to between 1,700 and 2,200 warheads by December 31, 2012. Russia convinced the United States to sign a legally binding treaty, but the United States rejected any limits and counting rules that would require the elimination of delivery vehicles and warheads removed from service. It wanted the flexibility to reduce its forces at its own pace, and to restore warheads to deployed forces if conditions warranted. Russian officials have hailed the success of Russia's diplomacy in convincing the United States to sign a legally binding Treaty that casts Russia as an equal partner in the arms control process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10461/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
This report provides background information regarding the Nuclear Arms Control negotiations between U.S. and Russia. In addition it discusses treaties, the content and form of the agreements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93962/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5674/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5676/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5673/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5675/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5672/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5671/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5677/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2057/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2056/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3655/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3652/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3651/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3650/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3654/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3653/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3649/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9537/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
At several meetings with Russian President Vladimir Putin, President George W. Bush stated that his administration will work with the Congress to grant Russia permanent 'normal trade relations" (PNTR) status. The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions currently applied to Russia under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment. The Bush Administration requested the 108th Congress to act. Two bills were introduced in the Senate and one in the House but none of them received further congressional action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10271/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9870/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3571/
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