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 Country: Russia
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)
This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. This report discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996. This report also discusses U.S. concerns that other nations, e.g., U.S. allies, Russia, and China, are not as strict with their economic sanctions against Iran, and how U.S. policymakers are combating this reticence with various pieces of legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26309/
Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations
This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief discussion of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objectives in the Middle East. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103196/
Kosovo's Independence and U.S. Policy
On February 17, 2008, Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia. On February 18, the United States recognized Kosovo as an independent state. Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and most other European Union countries have also recognized Kosovo. Serbia and Russia have heatedly objected to the recognition of Kosovo's independence. Independent Kosovo faces many challenges, including its relations with Serbia and Serbs in Kosovo, as well as weak institutions and an underdeveloped economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10602/
Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Plant and Plutonium Disposition: Management and Policy Issues
This report discusses the control of surplus nuclear weapons material that became an urgent U.S. foreign policy goal with the end of the Cold War and breakup of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284517/
Moldova: Basic Facts
Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union June 1940, and regained its independence on August 27, 1991. Shortly thereafter, Moldova faced challenges from Turkic-speaking Gagauz and ethnic Russians, both residing in Moldova's Dniestr valley, who proclaimed separatist "republics." Other challenges facing Moldovans include pursuing economic reform and choosing between potential reunification with their ethnic cohorts in Romania and forging an independent identity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26086/
Monitoring and Verification in Arms Control
This report reviews some of the monitoring and verification provisions in the new START Treaty between the U.S. and Russia and compares these with some of the provisions in the original START Treaty. It focuses, specifically, on differences between the treaties in the provisions governing the exchange of data, known as telemetry, generated during missile flight tests; provisions governing the monitoring of mobile intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs); and differences in the numbers and types of on-site inspections. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103092/
National Missile Defense: Russia's Reaction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2062/
National Missile Defense: Russia's Reaction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3665/
NATO Enlargement and Russia
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs610/
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
The United States and Russia signed a new strategic arms reduction treaty - known as New START - on April 8, 2010. This treaty is designed to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START), which expired, after 15 years of implementation, on December 5, 2009. This report provides an overview of New START, including a comparison to the original START Treaty, the belief of the Obama Administration and outside analysts that New START will enhance U.S. national security, and the criticisms of those who say that New START (and, indeed, the entire issue of U.S.-Russian arms control) is a distraction from more important items on the nonproliferation agenda. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31358/
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
The United States and Russia signed a new strategic arms reduction treaty - known as New START - on April 8, 2010. This treaty is designed to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START), which expired, after 15 years of implementation, on December 5, 2009. This report provides an overview of New START, including a comparison to the original START Treaty, the belief of the Obama Administration and outside analysts that New START will enhance U.S. national security, and the criticisms of those who say that New START (and, indeed, the entire issue of U.S.-Russian arms control) is a distraction from more important items on the nonproliferation agenda. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83944/
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
The United States and Russia signed a new strategic arms reduction treaty - known as New START - on April 8, 2010. This treaty is designed to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START), which expired, after 15 years of implementation, on December 5, 2009. This report provides an overview of New START, including a comparison to the original START Treaty, the belief of the Obama Administration and outside analysts that New START will enhance U.S. national security, and the criticisms of those who say that New START (and, indeed, the entire issue of U.S.-Russian arms control) is a distraction from more important items on the nonproliferation agenda. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83945/
The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions
The United States and Russia signed a new strategic arms reduction treaty - known as New START - on April 8, 2010. This treaty is designed to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START), which expired, after 15 years of implementation, on December 5, 2009. This report provides an overview of New START, including a comparison to the original START Treaty, the belief of the Obama Administration and outside analysts that New START will enhance U.S. national security, and the criticisms of those who say that New START (and, indeed, the entire issue of U.S.-Russian arms control) is a distraction from more important items on the nonproliferation agenda. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40097/
Next Steps in Nuclear Arms Control with Russia: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the role of nuclear arms control in the U.S.-Soviet relationship, bilateral treaties and unilateral steps the United States took to alter its nuclear posture, and the role of arms control in the U.S.- Russian relationship. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276874/
Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union
Congress passed the Nunn-Lugar amendment, authorizing U.S. threat reduction assistance to the former Soviet Union, in November 1991, after a failed coup in Moscow and the disintegration of the Soviet Union raised concerns about the safety and security of Soviet nuclear weapons. It has evolved from an emergency response to impending chaos in the Soviet Union, to a more comprehensive threat reduction and nonproliferation effort, to a broader program seeking to keep nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons from leaking out of the former Soviet Union and into the hands of rogue nations or terrorist groups, to a global program to address the threat of weapons of mass destruction. Analysts have debated numerous issues related to U.S. nonproliferation and threat reduction assistance. These include questions about the coordination of and priority given to these programs in the U.S. government, questions about Russia's willingness to provide the United States with access to its weapons facilities, questions about the President's ability to waive certification requirements so that the programs can go forward, and questions about the need to expand the efforts into a global program that receives funding from numerous nations and possibly extends assistance to others outside the former Soviet Union. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85445/
Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons
During the Senate debate on the new U.S.-Russian Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) in 2010, many Senators raised questions about Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons and noted their absence from the treaty limits. The United States and Russia have not included limits on these weapons in past arms control agreements. Nevertheless, Congress may press the Administration to seek solutions to the potential risks presented by these weapons in the future. This report looks at issues for Congress to consider regarding US weapons policy in light of the START agreement. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87286/
Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons
This report provides basic information about U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons. It begins with a brief discussion of how these weapons have appeared in public debates in the past few decades, then summarizes the differences between strategic and nonstrategic nuclear weapons. It then provides some historical background, describing the numbers and types of nonstrategic nuclear weapons deployed by both nations during the Cold War and in the past decade; the policies that guided the deployment and prospective use of these weapons; and the measures that the two sides have taken to reduce and contain their forces. The report reviews the issues that have been raised with regard to U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons, and summarizes a number of policy options that might be explored by Congress, the United States, Russia, and other nations to address these issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272089/
Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons
This report provides basic information about U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons, including history, security issues, and policy options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103174/
Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons
This report provides basic information about U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons. It begins with a brief discussion of the differences between strategic and nonstrategic nuclear weapons. It then provides some historical background, describing the numbers and types of nonstrategic nuclear weapons deployed by both nations during the Cold War and in the past decade; the policies that guided the deployment and prospective use of these weapons; and the measures that the two sides have taken to reduce, eliminate, and, more recently, augment their forces. The report reviews the issues that have been raised with regards to U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons, essentially identifying the "problems" many associate with the continued deployment of these weapons. It concludes with a review of policy options, or "solutions" for the preceding problems, that might be explored by Congress, the United States, Russia, and other nations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462917/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
On May 24, 2002, President Bush and Russia's President Putin signed the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (known as the Treaty of Moscow) that will reduce strategic nuclear weapons to between 1,700 and 2,200 warheads by December 31, 2012. Russia convinced the United States to sign a legally binding treaty, but the United States rejected any limits and counting rules that would require the elimination of delivery vehicles and warheads removed from service. It wanted the flexibility to reduce its forces at its own pace, and to restore warheads to deployed forces if conditions warranted. Russian officials have hailed the success of Russia's diplomacy in convincing the United States to sign a legally binding Treaty that casts Russia as an equal partner in the arms control process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10461/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
Report that provides background information regarding the Nuclear Arms Control negotiations between U.S. and Russia. Articles of the Treaty of Moscow and force structures under this treaty are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227973/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
This report provides background information regarding the Nuclear Arms Control negotiations between U.S. and Russia. Articles of the Treaty of Moscow and force structures under this treaty are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103159/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
This report provides background information regarding the Nuclear Arms Control negotiations between U.S. and Russia. In addition it discusses treaties, the content and form of the agreements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93962/
Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
This report provides a brief overview of U.S. and Russian objectives when they began discussions on the 1994 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) and a summary of how they resolved these differences when concluding the negotiations. It then describes the key provisions in the Treaty and presents illustrative forces that each side might deploy in the next 10 years. It offers a brief assessment of how each nation fared in achieving its objectives when negotiating this agreement and a summary of reaction from U.S. and Russian commentators. It concludes with a brief review of the issues raised during the Treaty's ratification debates. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463202/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5674/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5676/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5673/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5675/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5672/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5671/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5677/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2057/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2056/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3655/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3652/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3651/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3650/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3654/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3653/
Nuclear Weapons in Russia: Safety, Security, and Control Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3649/
Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations
This report describes the organizations controlling research and development (R&D) on nuclear weapons in several nations, and presents a brief history of the organizations controlling nuclear weapons R&D in the United States. It discusses whether these organizations are civilian or military, though in many nations the lines between civilian and military are blurred. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103054/
Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations
This report describes the organizations controlling research and development (R&D) on nuclear weapons (i.e., nuclear explosive devices, as distinct from the bombers and missiles that carry them) in these nations, and presents a brief history of the organizations controlling nuclear weapons R&D in the United States. It discusses whether these organizations are civilian or military, though in many nations the lines between civilian and military are blurred. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462955/
Partnership for Peace
NATO's Partnership for Peace program seeks to encourage eligible states, above all the states of the former Warsaw Pact and the former Soviet Union, to build democracy and undertake greater responsibilities in international security. The program could open the door to, but does not promise, NATO membership. U.S. and NATO relations with Russia are likely to be the determining factor in deciding whether states move from Partnership to NATO membership. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26043/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
Granting Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) status requires a change in law because Russia is prohibited from receiving unconditional and permanent NTR under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974. This provision includes the so-called Jackson-Vanik amendment. Extension of PNTR has implications for Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). This report examines this legislative issue in the context of Russian accession to the WTO and U.S.-Russian economic ties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33091/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the “freedom-of-emigration” requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment. The process for Russia's accession has been completed. As a result, Members of the 112th Congress confront the issue of whether to grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87367/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87368/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
Report that discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228107/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9537/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
At several meetings with Russian President Vladimir Putin, President George W. Bush stated that his administration will work with the Congress to grant Russia permanent 'normal trade relations" (PNTR) status. The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions currently applied to Russia under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment. The Bush Administration requested the 108th Congress to act. Two bills were introduced in the Senate and one in the House but none of them received further congressional action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10271/
Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9870/