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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
China's Rising Power: Alternative U.S. National Security Strategies - Findings of a Seminar
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs335/
China's Sinister View of U.S. Policy: Origins, Implications and Options
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China's Sovereign Wealth Fund: Developments and Policy Implications
China's ruling executive body, the State Council, established the China Investment Corporation (CIC), a sovereign wealth fund, in September 2007 to invest $200 billion of China's then $1.4 trillion in foreign exchange reserves. Congress and financial analysts raised concerns about the CIC after its creation, partly because it was a comparatively large sovereign wealth fund, partly because it was government-owned, and partly because it reported directly to the State Council. These concerns raise question about U.S. policies on inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and the global competitiveness of U.S. financial institutions. Certain commentators suggest that more should be done to protect the United States from China's rising role in international capital markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29612/
China's Space Program: An Overview
The People’s Republic of China successfully completed its second human spaceflight mission on October 17, 2005. China is only the third country, after Russia and the United States, able to launch people into space. Its first human spaceflight was in 2003 when a single astronaut, or “taikonaut,” made a flight lasting slightly less than a day. The 2005 flight lasted five days, and involved two taikonauts. As the United States embarks upon President Bush’s “Vision for Space Exploration” to return astronauts to the Moon by 2020 and someday send them to Mars, some may view China’s entrance into the human exploration of space as a competitive threat, while others may view China as a potential partner. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8308/
China's Space Program: Options for U.S.-China Cooperation
China has a determined, yet still modest, program of civilian space activities planned for the next decade. The potential for U.S.-China cooperation in space -- an issue of interest to Congress -- has become more controversial since the January 2007 Chinese anti-satellite test. Some argue that Chinese capabilities now threaten U.S. space assets in low earth orbit. Others stress the need to expand dialogue with China. This report outlines recent activities and future plans in China's civilian space sector. It also discusses benefits and trade-offs of possible U.S.-China collaboration in space, as well as several options to improve space relations, including information exchange, policy dialogue, and joint activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10721/
China's Space Program: Options for U.S.-China Cooperation
This report outlines recent activities and future plans in China's civilian space sector. It also discusses benefits and trade-offs of possible U.S.-China collaboration in space, as well as several options to improve space relations, including information exchange, policy dialogue, and joint activities. The report also includes discussion of China's controversial January 2007 testing of antisatellite weapons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10722/
China's Steel Industry and Its Impact on the United States: Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of China's steel industry and discusses the issues and implications with regard to the U.S. steel sector. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31374/
China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China's international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both People's Republic of China (PRC) sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highligh China's growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10464/
China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China’s international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both PRC sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highlight China’s growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8763/
China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China’s international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both PRC sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highlight China’s growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8344/
China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China’s international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both PRC sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highlight China’s growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6076/
China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China’s international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both PRC sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highlight China’s growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6462/
China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China’s international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both PRC sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highlight China’s growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9337/
China's Trade with the United States and the World
This report provides a quantitative framework for policy considerations dealing with U.S. trade with China. It provides basic data and analysis of China’s international trade with the United States and other countries. Since Chinese data differ considerably from those of its trading partners (because of how entrepot trade through Hong Kong is counted), data from both PRC sources and those of its trading partners are presented. Charts showing import trends by sector for the United States highlight China’s growing market shares in many industries and also show import shares for Japan, Canada, Mexico, the European Union, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3547/
China's Vice President Xi Jinping Visits the United States: What Is at Stake?
Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping (pronounced Shee Jin-ping) is scheduled to visit the United States in mid-February, 2012, returning Vice President Joseph R. Biden, Jr.'s August 2011 visit to China, which Xi hosted. The fact that Xi is the heir apparent to China's current top leader, Hu Jintao, who is scheduled to retire in the coming year, makes this more than an ordinary vice presidential visit. Xi's trip is designed to help him build relationships with American policymakers and legislators and introduce himself to the American business community and the American people on the eve of his becoming China's top leader. As important to the Chinese side, the trip could also play an important role in helping boost Xi's stature back home, where he is so far known as much for having a famous father, early Communist Party revolutionary Xi Zhongxun, and a famous wife, military folk singer Peng Liyuan, as for his own achievements. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87207/
Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs276/
Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs274/
Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs275/
Chinese Missile and Nuclear Proliferation: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs90/
Chinese Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control Policies: Implications and Options for the United States
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs171/
Chinese Tire Imports: Section 421 Safeguards and the World Trade Organization (WTO)
This report covers the Chinese-filed World Trade Organization (WTO) complaint against the U.S. over Section 421 of the Trade Acts of 1941, which has been renewed several times since. Section 421 authorizes the President to impose safeguards—that is, temporary measures such as import surcharges or quotas—on Chinese goods if domestic market disruption is found. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103067/
Chinese Tire Imports: Section 421 Safeguards and the World Trade Organization (WTO)
This report discusses World Trade Organization (WTO) safeguards provisions contained in Article XIX of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Agreement on Safeguards; the WTO China-specific safeguard and how it differs from preexisting WTO provisions; authorities and procedures set out in Section 421 of the Trade Act of 1974; the International Trade Commission (ITC) determination and the President's decision to provide relief in the 2009 China tires case; and China's WTO case against the U.S. tire safeguard. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122192/
Chinese Tire Imports: Section 421 Safeguards and the World Trade Organization (WTO)
This report covers the Chinese-filed World Trade Organization (WTO) complaint against the U.S. over Section 421 of the Trade Acts of 1941, which has been renewed several times since. Section 421 authorizes the President to impose safeguards—that is, temporary measures such as import surcharges or quotas—on Chinese goods if domestic market disruption is found. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96669/
CHIP and the ACA Maintenance of Effort (MOE) Requirement: In Brief
This report discusses the Affordable Care Act (ACA) child maintenance of effort (MOE) requirement for children if federal CHIP funding expires. It begins with a brief background about CHIP, including information regarding program design and financing. The report then describes the ACA child MOE requirements for CHIP Medicaid expansion programs and for separate CHIP programs and discusses potential coverage implications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503584/
The Chip Mill Industry in the South
Chip mills turn trees into chips for paper, particle-boards, and exports. While the federal government does not collect data on a chip mill industry, chip production in the South has apparently been expanding. The timber supply appears sufficient to allow some increased harvests, but could be depleted by continued industrial expansion. The federal government does not directly regulate timber cutting but could become engaged if requirements of the Clean Water and Endangered Species Acts were triggered. The government also has export promotion programs and export tax incentives. Recently, concerns have been expressed to Congress about the possible effects of clear-cutting for chip exports on water quality and wildlife habitat. This report will not be updated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs750/
Chronology and Brief Description of Federal Food Assistance Legislation, 1935-1983
Since 1935 when Congress first approved the donation of agricultural surplus commodities to low-income populations and school lunch programs, some 57 laws have been passed creating and revising Federal food assistance programs. This report is a chronology of these laws. It briefly describes the major provisions which have led to the network of Federal food assistance programs we know today-- the food stamp program, school lunch and breakfast programs, summer food and child care food programs, special and commodity supplemental food programs for women, infants and children (WICa nd CSFP), elderly nutrition programs, and commodity donation programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8866/
Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979: Background, Provisions, and Cost
A look at how the Chrysler Loan Guarantee Act of 1979 affected TARP funding for the Detroit Big Three. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83894/
Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979: Background, Provisions, and Cost
A look at how the Chrysler Loan Guarantee Act of 1979 affected TARP funding for the Detroit Big Three. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83893/
Cigarette Taxes to Fund Health Care Reform: An Economic Analysis
A cigarette excise tax increase of 75 cents per pack has been proposed to finance part of the President's universal health care program. The tax enjoys considerable public support, would raise about $11 billion per year, and would be relatively simple to administer because it would increase an existing manufacturer's excise tax. This report discusses these rationales, as well as other effects of and concerns about the tax, organized into topics of market failure as a justification for the tax (i.e., economic efficiency); potential for revenue; equity; and the job loss the tax might cause in tobacco growing regions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26039/
Circular A-76 and the Moratorium on DOD Competitions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current moratorium on the conduct of Department of Defense (DOD) public-private competitions under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76 and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87147/
Circular A-76 and the Moratorium on DOD Competitions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current moratorium on the conduct of Department of Defense (DOD) public-private competitions under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76 and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83928/
Circular A-76 and the Moratorium on DOD Competitions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current moratorium on the conduct of Department of Defense (DOD) public-private competitions under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76 and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83929/
Circular A-76 and the Moratorium on DOD Competitions: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the current moratorium on the conduct of Department of Defense (DOD) public-private competitions under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76 and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463485/
Circular A-76 Revision 2003: Selected Issues
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76,1 which was first issued in 1966, provides guidance for federal agencies to use in determining who — government agency or private business — will perform commercial activities.2 Circular A-76 and the Circular No. A-76 Revised Supplemental Handbook have been modified over the years. The handbook expanded upon Circular A-76 policy and provided guidance for conducting cost comparisons. Key changes include the initial publication of the handbook in 1979; the incorporation of the language of government reinvention in 1996; and the implementation of the Federal Activities Inventory Reform Act (FAIR) of 1998 in 1999. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7775/
Citizen Control Over Records Held by Third Parties
The United States has become an information society. Government at every level and private industry have been collecting and using more personal information about individuals in the last several years than ever before. The Congress has been aware of this trend, and of the potencia1 for misuse of the information so collected; it has enacted several laws that protect the personal privacy of individuals, and respect the confidentiality of the information maintained about individuals by third parties. In this report, several privacy laws are summarized, and key provisions of each are compared, in order to make individual citizens aware of their rights , responsibilities and remedies under the law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8139/
Civics Programs in Washington, D.C.
A number of programs in Washington, D.C., explain the workings of the national government to a diverse range of Americans, from middle school students to senior citizens. This report highlights six of the most popular programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3302/
Civics Programs in Washington, D.C.
A number of programs in Washington, D.C., explain the workings of the national government to a diverse range of Americans, from middle school students to senior citizens. This report highlights six of the most popular programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3303/
Civil Charges in Corporate Scandals
This report lists civil suites filled by federal regulatory agencies charging individuals and corporations with violations related to these scandals. The list is limited to corporations and their offices or employees that fit within the Enron pattern. That is, these are cases that display one or more of the following: irregular accounting and auditing, management self-dealing, conflicts of interests between firms and financial advisors (or Wall Street firms and their costumers), and manipulation or abusive trading in energy markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9087/
Civil Defense and the Effects of Nuclear War
This Info Pack contains material on nuclear weapons and on the anticipated physical, economic, and social consequences of nuclear attacks on the United States, basic information on the civil defense program, and material discussing some of the arguments, pro and con, surrounding the civil defense issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8603/
Civil Rights Commission Reauthorization
The Civil Rights Commission Act of 1998 (H.R. 3117) would reauthorize the commission through FY2001. It was introduced by Representative Canady on January 28, 1998, referred to the Committee on the Judiciary, and reported with an amendment on March 2, 1998. It passed the House, amended, by voice vote on March 18. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs675/
Civil Rights Legislation: Responses to Grove City College v. Bell
This report discusses how broad should the coverage of Federal civil rights laws be? This was the central issue in the debate over legislation introduced in response to the February 1984 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Grove City College v. Bell. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9068/
Civil Rights of Individuals with Disabilities: The Opinions of Judge Alito
Judge Samuel Alito Jr. was nominated by President Bush to the U.S. Supreme Court on October 31, 2005. This report examines the opinions written by Judge Alito relating to civil rights for individuals with disabilities and includes a discussion of cases relating to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Fair Housing Amendments Act. In addition, Judge Alito’s federalism decisions are briefly analyzed and their potential impact on disability related issues is discussed. Decisions authored by Judge Alito, as well as selected dissents and decisions where he joined the majority are examined. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8080/
Civil Rights Opinions of U.S. Supreme Court Nominee Samuel Alito: A Legal Overview
During his 15 years as a federal appellate judge on the Third Circuit, Judge Alito has written for the majority, concurred, or dissented in several cases alleging discrimination based on race, ethnicity, gender, religion, and other prohibited grounds. His legal positions in these cases have varied, depending on the facts and law being applied, and defy rigid or facile classification. Nonetheless, some continuity in judicial approach, both substantive and procedural, may arguably be discerned from a review of several of his significant opinions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8081/
Civil Rights Restoration Act: Bibliography-in-Brief, 1984-1988
This bibliography includes references to magazine articles, monographs, and congressional documents which discuss civil rights legislation following 1984 Supreme Court decision in Grove City v. Bell which ruled title IX applies only to the specific program receiving federal financial assistance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9069/
The Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987: Legal Analysis of S.557
The Senate i n January 1988 passed S. 557 with amendments to “restore the...broad institution – wide application" of certain federal civil rights laws in the wake of t h e U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Grove City College v. Bell . This report discusses the background and contents of this legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9613/
Civil Service Retirement Bills in the 106th Congress
Among the civil service retirement issues addressed in bills introduced thus far in the 106th Congress are the correction of retirement coverage errors for federal employees assigned to the wrong retirement system; immediate eligibility for federal employees to participate in the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP); improved portability of pension benefits; and repeal of the temporary increase in employee retirement contributions that was mandated by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Other bills would expand TSP eligibility to include members of the armed services; improve pension coverage for temporary and part-time federal employees; and designate several categories of federal employees as law enforcement officers for purposes of determining their retirement benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1241/
The Civil Works Program of the Army Corps of Engineers: A Primer
This report outlines the agency’s organization, project development process, civil works appropriations, and evolution of its responsibilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7314/
Civilian Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act: Federal Contractor Criminal Liability Overseas
The United States government uses hundreds of thousands of civilian contractors and employees overseas. They and their dependents are often subject to local prosecution for the crimes they commit abroad. Whether by agreement, practice, or circumstance—sometimes they are not. This report looks at two bills that would supplement the Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act (MEJA), which permits federal persecution of certain crimes commuted abroad by Defense Department civilian employees, contractors, or their dependents. These two bills are the Civilian Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act (CEJA) and S.1145. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87215/
Civilian Nuclear Spent Fuel Temporary Storage Options
The Department of Energy (DOE) is studying a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for a permanent underground repository for highly radioactive spent fuel from nuclear reactors, but delays have pushed back the facility’s opening date to 2010 at the earliest. In the meantime, spent fuel is accumulating at U.S. nuclear plant sites at the rate of about 2,000 metric tons per year. Major options for managing those growing quantities of nuclear spent fuel include continued storage at reactors, construction of a DOE interim storage site near Yucca Mountain, and licensing of private storage facilities. Arguments for development of a federal interim storage facility include DOE legal obligations, long-term costs, and public controversy over new on-site storage facilities. Opposition to centralized storage centers on the potential risks of a large-scale nuclear waste transportation campaign. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs784/
Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal
Management of civilian radioactive waste has posed difficult issues for Congress since the beginning of the nuclear power industry in the 1950s. Federal policy is based on the premise that nuclear waste can be disposed of safely, but proposed storage and disposal facilities have frequently been challenged on safety, health, and environmental grounds. Although civilian radioactive waste encompasses a wide range of materials, most of the current debate focuses on highly radioactive spent fuel from nuclear power plants. This report outlines issues regarding the management and disposal of civilian radioactive waste, as well as past and ongoing related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10332/