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 Decade: 1980-1989
 Year: 1982
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agent Orange: Veterans' Complaints Concerning Exposure to Herbicides in South Vietnam
From 1962 to 1971, the United States Air Force (USAF) sprayed various herbicide mixtures (chemicals that kill plants) in South Vietnam. The purpose of the spraying was to defoliate jungle growth to deprive the Communist forces of ground cover, and to destroy enemy crops to restrict food supplies. The most extensively used of these herbicide mixtures was known as Agent Orange, a 50:50 mix of two common herbicides called 1,4,5-T and 2,4-D (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). The third chemical present in the mixture in small amounts was TCDD, an inevitable by-product of the manufacture of 2,4,5-T. This chemical, called tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin or simply "dioxin," is highly toxic to laboratory animals when administered in its pure form. CRS has been unable to locate any report of a human death from exposure to pure TCDD. This report discusses the human health effects that have occurred from exposure to TCDD, as well as related Congressional concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8607/
Automobile Domestic Content Requirements
In response to the lowest drop of American produced automobile sales in two decades and other related conditions, legislation has been introduced that would impose domestic (local) content ratios for automotive vehicles. These would require that cars and trucks sold in the United States in large quantities contain a certain percentage of American parts and labor. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8793/
The Availability of Nonfuel Minerals on Federal Lands: Background on the Issue
The following report reviews the laws and practices that govern the extraction of non-fuel minerals from federal lands, and the restrict ions against such extract ions. Moreover, the federal land management agencies that regulate such activities are identified, and their responsibilities discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8508/
Balancing the Budget and Limiting Federal Spending: A Selected Bibliography
This selected bibliography lists articles and books on various issues concerning legislation to limit Federal spending and proposed constitutional amendments requiring a balanced budget, especially economic issues. The bibliography focuses mainly on literature of recent years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8163/
Bankruptcy and Business Failure Data
The purpose of this report is to provide statistical data on the actual number of businesses that are filing for bankruptcy or ceasing operations. Tabular data of both a historical and current nature concerning business failures and bankruptcies is provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9037/
Basic Reference Sources For Use by Congressional Offices: An Annotated Selection of Publications and Services
This is an annotated guide to publications and other sources of information useful to Members of Congress and their staffs, covering congressional office management, the organization and operation of Congress, legislative responsibilities, services to constituents, and other duties of Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8506/
Busing for School Desegregation
The mandatory transportation of school children to desegregate public elementary and secondary schools is an issue of deep contention throughout our society. The House of Representatives has approved language for the Department of Justice FY82 authorization bill (H.R. 3462) restricting the Department's involvement in actions requiring school busing. On Mar. 2, 1962, t h e Senate approved the version of the Department of Justice F Y 8 2 authorization Bill (S. 951) with language restricting the Justice Department's involvement in busing actions as well as imposing limits on the busing plans Federal courts can impose. S. 551 was then sent to the House for consideration. Hearings on S. 951 before a house Judiciary subcommittee began on June 1'7, 1982. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8601/
Casework in a Congressional Office
This paper presents a general overview of congressional office procedures associated with handling casework, and the assistance provided by a Member of Congress to help constituents in their dealings with Federal agencies. It discusses options for assisting Member's constituents, and the role of staff and Members in providing casework services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8162/
The Changing World of Financial Intermediaries and Related Institutions: Survey of Major Developments and Their Implications for Public Policy
Inflation, high and variable interest rates, and new electronic technology have had a profound impact on financial institutions throughout the world. This report surveys how the various kinds of financial institutions in the United States have been affected by these developments, how they have reacted, what major legislative action has been taken, and what policy issues remain. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8504/
The Child Support Enforcement Program
This report provides summary information on the child support enforcement program, established under title IV-D of the Social Security Act. It includes basic program statistics and a description of the administrative structure and major characteristics of the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8411/
Civil Defense and the Effects of Nuclear War
This Info Pack contains material on nuclear weapons and on the anticipated physical, economic, and social consequences of nuclear attacks on the United States, basic information on the civil defense program, and material discussing some of the arguments, pro and con, surrounding the civil defense issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8603/
A Comparison of Benefits Earned Under Social Security and Civil Service Retirement
This report provides a brief side-by-side comparison of Civil Service Retirement and Social Security benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8802/
Congressional Pay
The question of a salary increase for Members of Congress was considered by both Houses numerous times during the 97th Congress. The issue was last considered during December in the FY83 Further Continuing Appropriations. As sent to the President, the measure provided for a 15% pay increase for Members of the House of Representatives and other senior Federal officials, but not for Senators. The resolution was signed into law by the President on Dec. 21, 1982. Previously, in September, Congress approved a pay cap through Dec. 17, 1982 for Members and other senior Federal officials. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8594/
Congressional Veto Legislation: 97th Congress
This report has two purposes: first, to describe briefly the main features of each kind of congressional veto procedure, and second, to list under appropriated categories all such provisions submitted in the current Congress that have been located. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8595/
Congressional Veto of Executive Actions
Statutory provisions by which Congress authorizes a Federal program to be administered by the Executive but retains the legal authority to disapprove all or part of the program before final implementation have become increasingly frequent in recent years. These statutory provisions which subject a variety of proposed executive actions to congressional review are commonly known as "congressional veto" devices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8593/
Copyright Law: Legalizing Home Taping of Audio and Video Recordings
Various Members of Congress have proposed amendments to the Copyright Act that would provide a blanket exemption for noncommercial home audio and video off-air recording. The major thrust of the copyright owners' opposing position is if you cannot protect what you own, or at least receive some compensation for its use, you own nothing. This is countered by those who feel the purpose of the copyright law is to promote broad public availability of artistic products and when the copyright owners decide to use the distribution mechanism of the public airwaves, they have to accept the premises of the public airwaves. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9043/
Electoral Votes by State: Changes Resulting from the 1980 Census
This report presents a chart and a U.S. map describing the electoral votes by state and the changes resulted from the 1980 census. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8600/
Energy and the 97th Congress: Overview
During his campaign, President Reagan called for a major shift in this country's energy policy. In particular, the President emphasized the need for more domestic production of energy and reliance on market forces to produce and distribute energy products. Now in office, the new Administration is employing executive, administrative, and legislative methods to implement these changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8604/
Enterprise Zones
The enclosed material discusses the concept of urban enterprise zones, outlines the administration's proposals for the zones, and includes the major arguments for and against their creation. Because of considerable congressional interest in the enterprise zone concept, we have included a comparison of the major bills relating to enterprise zones introduced in the 97th Congress along with a bibliography for those who desire to research the subject in greater detail. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8164/
Enterprise Zones: The Urban Jobs and Enterprise Zone Act of 1981
"Enterprise zones” as a concept originated in England in the late 1970s. The idea is to free specified urban areas of taxes and Government regulations to encourage private business investment and create new jobs. There is little in the way of direct empirical evidence to indicate whether and how such an approach would work. There is considerable interest in the concept, however, since other Federal urban assistance programs (such as Urban Renewal in the 1950s, Model Cities in the 1960s, and Urban Development Action Grant more recently -- since 1978) have not produced in sufficient amount the desired results in creating jobs for the unemployed in inner cities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8614/
Equal Rights Amendment (Proposed)
The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first introduced in 1923, and was passed by the Congress in 1972. In 1978, Congress extended the original deadline for ratification of the ERA. Thus, if it receives approval in the form of ratification by 38 States before June 30, 1982, the measure will become the 27th Amendment to the Constitution, and will require equal treatment under Federal and State laws and practices for all persons, regardless of sex. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8412/
Examining the Monetary Causes of the Economic Slowdown
This issue brief investigates the effects of changes in money supply growth on the current economic conditions. The results presented are based upon a statistical methodology outlined in a CRS report (No.82-43E, March 1982) of the same title. The approach may be distinguished from most previous work along these lines in that it attempts to estimate the statistical significance of the 1979-82 deceleration in monetary growth. The resulting estimates are then employed in analyzing the timing implications of decelerating monetary growth for episodes of high and volatile interest rates, for lower inflation, and for unstable economic growth. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8800/
Federal and State Authority to Regulate Radioactive Waste Disposal and Transportation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8509/
Flat-Rate Tax Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8709/
Foreign Investment in U.S. Industry
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8609/
Grants Work in a Congressional Office
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8708/
Gun Control
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8597/
Health Insurance: The Pro-Competition Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8608/
Health Maintenance Organizations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8788/
How the Food Stamp Program Works
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8505/
Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8859/
The Immigration and Nationality Act: Questions and Answers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8507/
Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs): Tax Incentives for Retirement Savings
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8611/
Information Services for Agriculture: The Role of Technology
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8510/
The Insanity Defense: An Overview and Legislative Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8500/
Japan-U.S. Trade Relations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8612/
Japan's International Trade Patterns, Institutions, and Policies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8511/
Leasing of Energy and Mineral Resources on Federal Lands
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8792/
Legal Analysis of President Reagan's Proposed Constitutional Amendment on School Prayer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8801/
Merger Tactics and Public Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8497/
Mergers: Background and Current Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8592/
Monetary Policy: Recent Changes and Current Conditions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8599/
The NIH Recombinant DNA Guidelines: Brief History and Current Status
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8794/
Nuclear Freeze: Arms Control Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8795/
Nuclear Weapons Freeze Movement: Issues for National Debate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8616/
Onshore and Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing and Operations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8502/
Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lands: Leasing for Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Development
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8610/
P.L. 97-320, Garn-St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982: A Brief Explanation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8503/
Parental Kidnapping
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8598/
President Reagan's START Proposal: Projected U.S./U.S.S.R. Ballistic Missile Forces
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8618/
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