Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California

those had certificated librarians, compared with 93% of all high schools nationally with
certificated librarians (Howell, 1968). The report noted the challenges of keeping pace with the
rapid population growth of that era but nevertheless included a host of recommendations about
required staffing and budget levels to provide adequate library services to all public schools.
"The results of this study make it apparent," wrote Superintendent of Public Instruction Max
Rafferty in the foreword of the report, "that far too little has been done for the schools to have
the library facilities, stock of library materials, and quality of library services they need and must
have to maintain the quality of modern education programs that are required" (Howell, iii).
In spite of robust federal funding from ESEA, the California legislature did not mandate
staffing or minimum per pupil expenditures. The California Media and Library Educators
Association, though, did produce Guidelines for California Library Media Programs.: School,
District, County, State, which adapted the national standards of 1975 to California and
articulated qualitative and quantitative guidelines to be used by schools and districts throughout
the state in developing and maintaining quality school library programs (Guidelines for
California Media Programs, 1977).
Just as the ESEA money was folded into an education block grant, Section 18100 of the
California education code was passed, requiring school districts to maintain school libraries or
enter into contracts with other agencies to do this, and directing the State Board of Education to
adopt standards, rules and regulations for library services (Brandes, 1987). The State Board even
made strong recommendations that districts assign certificated librarians to provide services to
students in well-stocked school libraries. Unfortunately, because these recommendations and
regulations carried no funding mechanisms or sanctions for enforcement, districts were free to
carry out the Board's instructions to any degree they chose (Brandes, 1987).

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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/. Accessed July 29, 2014.