Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California

Table 12 (continued)

State Grade Correlation State Test r
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006) 8 Total Staffing Hrs. Reading .226**
Florida (Baumbach, 2003) 10 Total No. Staff Reading .344**
Florida (Baumbach, 2003) 10 Total Staffing Hrs. Reading .265**
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006) 10 Total No. Staff ACT English .257**
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006) 10 Total No. Staff ACT Reading .255**
Michigan (Rodney et al., 2003) 11 Total No. Staff Reading .263**
Michigan (Rodney et al., 2003) 11 Total Staffing Hrs. Reading .275**
Pennsylvania (Lance et al., 2000b) 11 Total Staffing Hrs. Reading .274*
North Carolina (Burgin et al., 2003) K-12 Total Staffing Hrs. Language Arts .272**
and Readinga
a. Reading test for elementary and middle schools, language arts test for high school. Used z scores to standardize measure.
*p <.05, **p <.01.
Numerical data for partial correlation calculations were only reported in one study
Pennsylvania (Lance, Rodney & Hamilton-Pennell, 2000b)-and positive significant
correlations remained at all sampled grade levels when controlling for community variables
including income, education and ethnicity. In partial correlations between library staffing levels
and reading scores using four school and community variables as controls, the authors of the
Illinois (Lance et al., 2005) study reported a positive significant relationship between total
staffing and student test scores in elementary, middle school and high school, although that
relationship remained statistically significant with all four school and community variables in
those correlations only at the high school level.

65

Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/. Accessed April 16, 2014.