Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California

(continued)
State Test
Language Arts

Correlation
.169*

p Covariable
.025 percent free and reduced lunch

10 Language Arts
10 Language Arts
10 Reading ACT
10 ACT English
10 Reading ACT
10 ACT English
a. Limited English Proficient
*p <.05, **p <.01.

.171

.057 LEP students

.146*
.124*
.151*
.148*
.181**

.027 percent minority students
.049 LEP studentsa
.017 LEP studentsa
.01 percent minority students
.004 percent minority students

Staffing and Its Impact on Learning and Teaching
If, as the literature just reviewed suggests, the learning and teaching responsibilities of
the library media specialist have an impact on student achievement, then it must also be
established that the quality and amount of staffing, both certificated and clerical, have a direct
impact on the ability of the library media specialist to carry out those responsibilities. Gaver
(1963) found that students in a school with a centralized library and a certificated librarian have
more access to the library, its resources, and its services than are students in a school lacking a
certificated librarian or a centralized collection. Based on the results from interviews and surveys
with elementary, middle and high school library media specialists, school principals and district
superintendents, The Millbrook Report (1990) concluded that the amount and quality of
curricular and instructional involvement by library media specialists may be directly related to
their educational training in library science. This report also noted the clear division of labor

58

Table 11
Grade
8

I

1 ~

Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/. Accessed August 23, 2014.