gaps leading to new knowledge or sense-making-provided by the library program. 48
questions corresponded to seven different categories of helps provided, including location and
access of information; use of information to complete school work; completion of school work
in general; use of computers; reading and writing; influence of the school library program
outside of school; and overall academic achievement. The number one ranked help by students
was, "The school library has helped me know the different steps in finding and using
information," an outcome related to information literacy. "Underpinning the students' value of
instructional intervention in information literacy development," the authors concluded, "are
school librarians who have a clearly defined role in information-centered pedagogy as
information-learning specialists" (Todd & Kuhlthau, p. 22).
In a subsequent study that used the survey tool developed by Todd and Kuhlthau in the
Ohio study (2004), Wisconsin students and teachers reported that library media specialists
helped students gain skills they did not learn in the classroom, including how to search, review
and synthesize information (Smith, 2006). This study also included case studies of five
outstanding library programs, in which the researcher noted that the library media specialists in
all five programs spent the majority of their time on instructional activities, including teaching
collaboratively, teaching information literacy and technology literacy skills, and assisting
students with their projects (Smith, 2006).
Much of the research conducted about the library media specialist's direct instruction of
students involves library skills and, later, information literacy. Early research compared non-
integrated library program instruction to a lack of instruction and supported the position that
students who receive such instruction outperform those who do not (Didier, 1984; Haycock,
1992; Marchant et al., 1984). As the instructional role of the library media specialist finally
Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/. Accessed December 6, 2016.