Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California

ratio. In Michigan, Rodney et al. (2005) noted a statistically significant correlation between
reading scores and library media specialist staffing at the 7th and 11th grade when including the
percent eligible for free and reduced lunch, per pupil school expenditures, and the percent of
minority students in the regression. In both studies, other school and community variables were
excluded from the regression as part of factor analysis. See Table 9 for a summary of the data
from Alaska and Michigan.
Table 9
State Test Scores and LMS to Pupil Ratio.: Multiple regression analysis
State Grade State Test AR2 Beta p Co-variables
Alaska 4 CAT5a .089 ---b .001 Pupil expenditures,
(Lance et al., 1999) teacher/pupil ratio
Michigan 7 Reading .008 .095 .001 percent eligible for free
(Rodney et al., 2003) & reduced lunch, per
pupil school
expenditures, percent
minority students
Michigan 11 Reading .027 .166 .001 percent eligible for free
(Rodney et al., 2003) & reduced lunch, per
pupil school
expenditures, percent
minority students
a. Includes mathematics, reading and language arts.
b. Not reported.
Staffing and Other Measures of Student Achievement
Several studies demonstrate correlations between staffing and other measures of student of
achievement beyond reading. Mancall's (1985) analysis of research from the previous 30 years
led her to report that the presence of a library media program can be related to better library
skills, overall achievement, and specific content area subjects. Haycock (1992) similarly reported
a positive relationship between the level of service offered through a library program and overall

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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/. Accessed August 29, 2014.