Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California

Table 8 (continued)

State Grade Library Measure State Test r p
New Mexico (Lance et al., 10 LMS/Pupil Ratio Language .239* .046
2002) Arts
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006) 10 Number of LMS Lang Arts .152* .015
Iowa (Rodney et al., 2002) 11 LMS/Pupil Ratio Reading .136* .038
Michigan (Rodney et al., 2003) 11 LMS Total Reading .159* <.05
Alaska (Lance et al., 1999) Second LMS/Pupil Ratio CAT5a .20* <.05
North Carolina North Carolina K-12 LMS Total Language .194* .012
(Burgin et al., 2003) Hours Arts/
a. Includes mathematics, reading and language arts.
b. Reading test for elementary and middle schools, language arts test for high school. Used z scores to standardize measure.
*p <.05, **p <.01.
In partial correlations in Illinois (Lance et al., 2005), some correlations were noted
between library media specialist staffing and student achievement. There was a significant
correlation at the fifth grade and eight grade when three of four school and community variables-
- household income, per pupil expenditure, teacher/pupil ratio and student ethnicity-- were used
as the control variable. At the 11th grade there was a statistically significant correlation when all
four school and community variables were included. No specific figures regarding these
correlations were published.
In Alaska, Lance et al. (1999) found a significant correlation between library staffing and
standardized tests in a regression analysis that included per pupil expenditures and teacher/pupil


Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/. Accessed October 22, 2016.