demonstrated a significant correlation with standardized test scores-most commonly reading
scores-- in statewide studies. Eight statewide studies include such correlations. The Florida
(Baumbach, 2003), Iowa (Rodney et al., 2002) and Michigan (Rodney et al., 2003)studies
included significant positive correlations between reading scores and library media specialist
staffing at the elementary, middle school and high school levels. The Alaska (Lance, Hamilton-
Pennell, Rodney, Peterson & Sitter, 1999) study reported significant positive correlations at the
elementary and secondary levels, while data from North Carolina (Burgin et al., 2003) was
reported cumulatively for grades K-12.
Again, no clear pattern emerged in terms of the strength of the association and grade
level. Nevertheless, along with size of the print collection, LMS staffing was one of the library
program variables that correlated most strongly with student achievement in the statewide
studies. In three of the eight studies reporting significant correlations, those correlations were
stronger than .30, and in two, Florida and Michigan, correlations were stronger that .40. See
Table 8 for a summary of results.
State Test Scores and LMS Staffing Levels.: Bivariate Correlations
State Grade Library Measure State Test r p
Florida (Baumbach, 2003) 3 Number of LMS Reading .221* <.05
Minnesota (Baxter & Smalley, 3 LMS Total Reading .115* .018
Alaska (Lance et al., 1999) 4 LMS/Pupil Ratio CAT5a .310** <.001
Iowa (Rodney et al., 2002) 4 LMS/Pupil Ratio Reading .178* .021
Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/. Accessed November 22, 2014.