If there is a positive relationship between student achievement and the hours a library
opens, one might expect a corresponding relationship between student achievement and the
frequency of student visits to the library. Bivariate correlations from several studies, including
Iowa (Rodney, Lance & Hamilton-Pennell, 2002), Michigan (Rodney, Lance & Hamilton-
Pennell, 2003), Wisconsin (Smith, 206) and New Mexico (Lance, Rodney & Hamilton-Pennell,
2002), bear this out. Results from the Missouri (Miller, Want & Whitacre, 2003) study also
show a positive but not statistically significant correlation. See Table 2 for a summary of results.
State Test Scores and Library Visits per Student.: Bivariate Correlations
State Grade State Test r p
Iowa (Rodney et al., 2002) 4 Reading .188* .018
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006) 4 Reading .132** .005
Michigan (Rodney et al., 2003) 7 Reading .176 t <.05
Iowa (Rodney et al., 2002) 8 Reading .142t .043
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006) 8 Reading .182** .006
New Mexico 10 Language Arts .229 .058
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006) 10 Reading .144* .024
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006) 10 ACT English .153* .017
Michigan (Rodney et al., 2003) 11 Reading .158? <.05
Missouri (Miller et al., 2003) K-12 Weighted .091 .159
a. A formula that combines reading and non-reading test scores, weighted by the number of students eligible to take the test.
* p <.05, two-tailed. ** p <.01, two-tailed t p <.05, one-tailed.
Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/. Accessed June 30, 2015.