Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California

by private and government-funded initiatives that helped expand the presence and awareness of
school libraries nationwide.
The 1969 publication of Standards for School Media Programs (AASL & Department of
Audiovisual Instruction of the National Education Association [DAVI]) reflected the
increasingly important role multimedia resources began to play in education. In this document,
all media were considered equally important sources of information, and the terms media
specialist, media center, and media program were used to indicate the broadened focus of the
library program beyond print materials in an attempt to unify school library and audiovisual
programs (AASL and AECT, 1988). The instructional role of the librarian, now called a "media
specialist" (AASL and AECT, 1988), was further developed in these standards, too. The media
specialist works with teachers in curriculum planning, provides assistance with resources in
classrooms, provides teachers with relevant information about students' progress as observed in
the media center, and even serves as a full-time member on teaching teams where possible
(AASL & DAVI 1969). The media specialist additionally provides in-service training on the full
spectrum of media and their uses and acts as instructional consultant to teachers, keeping
teachers apprised of recent educational trends and providing help with the analysis and design of
the instructional program and activities (Gann 1998).
The 1975 standards expanded the instructional role of the media specialist even further,
stressing the media specialist's involvement with classroom teachers in instructional design,
moving the media program "from a support service to an integral part of the total instructional
program of the school (AASL & AECT, 1988, p. 3).
Despite widespread funding and support for school libraries in the preceding decade, in
the 1980s, the education community as a whole faced much criticism, perhaps no more strongly


Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/. Accessed January 17, 2017.