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Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California

leadership positions, including serving on curriculum committees and site and district
committees involving policy-making.
Shortly after the 1960 standards were published, the School Library Development Project
of the AASL was established "to promote wide knowledge and understanding of the national
standards; demonstrate a team approach by librarians, other educations and citizens in
implementing the standards; develop plans and techniques for use in school library development;
and promote the adoption, in each state, of sound state standards for school libraries" (Kennon &
Doyle, 1962). A $100,000 grant funded this push to develop quality school libraries nation-wide
(Kennon & Doyle, 1962). The advisory board chairman of this group was M. Gaver, whose
early research on the impact of school libraries on student achievement helped build support for
school libraries throughout the decade.
While the standards and associated promotion of them helped "clarify the thinking of
administrators, teachers and library/media personnel about their common goals and the best
means of achieving these goals through the use of expanded library/media services" (Saunders,
1975, p. 2), substantial private and public funding became available to this end. In 1963, the
Knapp Foundation financed a $1,130,000 demonstration grant that sought to illustrate the
educational value of school library programs, promote understanding of school library programs
to the broader educational community, and increase public and school support for school
libraries in the process (Saunders, 1975). In 1965, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
(ESEA) targeted $100,000,000 for the purchase of library resources to raise the level of school
library services described in the 1960 standards (Pender, 1984). During the first three years of
ESEA, 12 % of all public schools-over 11,000 schools-established a school library (NCES,
2005). Standards emphasizing a greater instructional role for the librarian, then, were reinforced


Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. Accessed October 8, 2015.