Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California

responsibility" (ALA Education Committee, 1927, p. 3). The importance of librarian as teacher
in this pedagogy was articulated by Wilson (1928) in his review of Logasa's 1928 book, The
High School Library. Its Function in Education: "The outstanding merit of the book is not that it
presents a guide to effective library practice but that it attempts to correlate library practice with
the underlying philosophy of education itself. The book is valuable because it reveals the
librarian as a teacher, a vital member of the school staff. In this respect the book is a pioneer in
its field" (p. 795).
Then as now, the publication and promotion of standards do not always translate into
support. In fact, most elementary school libraries were generally either non-existent, haphazardly
constructed and operated, or poorly funded up until at least the 1950s (Woolls, 2005).
Nevertheless, the concept of the school library and the role of the school librarian made great
strides between 1925 and the next published standards in 1945. The ALA Education Committee
in 1928 published School Library Yearbook-Number Two, and in consideration of training for
school library professionals, the committee states that a key part of the school librarian's
background must be "an understanding of educational theory and practice, at present only to be
obtained through the usual courses in education designed to prepare teachers, not librarians" (p.
81). The school library community would do much in the coming years to solidify the school
librarian's role as both teacher and librarian.
As Lester and Latrobe (1999) point out, School Library Yearbook-Number Two raises the
complexity of the dual role in a school setting and identified teachers' colleges and library
schools that offer school library courses for public school administrators. "Where principal and
superintendent are alertly aware of the possibilities in professional library service, there is no
question of correct school library direction" (ALA, 1928, 82). This recognition of the need to

14

Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/. Accessed December 28, 2014.