For the purposes of this study, the terms "school librarian," "library media specialist"
(LMS) and the title now used in California, "teacher librarian," shall be synonymous.
According to the Commission on Teacher Credentialing (2007), in California, certification for
the Teacher Librarian Services Credential requires an undergraduate degree, a valid teaching
credential, a passing score on the California Test of Basic Skills, and completion of a
Commission-approved library media teacher services program or a similar program in other
states, also approved by the appropriate state agency. This credential authorizes the holder to
perform duties that include
* Instructing pupils in the choice and use of library materials
* Planning and coordinating school library programs with the instructional programs of
a school district
* Selecting materials for school and district libraries
* Coordinating or supervising library programs at the school district or county level
* Planning and conducting a course of instruction for those pupils who assist in the
operation of school libraries
* Supervising classified personnel assigned school library duties
* Developing procedures for and management of the school and district libraries
As library media specialists require special certification as described above, they may also be
referred to in this study as "certificated staffing." "Clerical staffing" includes paraprofessionals
and others paid to assist in the day to day operations of a school library who hold neither
teaching credentials nor LMS credentials. "Total staffing" and "total library staff' refer to the
total number of hours of certificated and clerical staffing of the school library.
Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/. Accessed January 22, 2017.